20 April 1942

20 April 1942

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20 April 1941

Eastern Front

End of general Soviet offensive (from 8 January 1942). German troops are pushed back up to 200 miles.


Resistance attempts to assassinate Jacques Doriot, French Fascist

Laval makes in broadcast in which he announces France's place in Hitler's New Order


Spitfires are flown off USS Wasp to reinforce Malta

April 1942 Alternate Indian Ocean

1000 Hours, 26 August 1942, Koepang, Timor – After cruising across the Timor Sea at 270mph, the Dutch A-20 pilots jammed their throttles forward as they approached the coastline and both Havocs were up to 330mph by the time they went feet dry 40 miles due east of Koepang Harbor and the airfield at Penfui. The Wright Double Cyclone engines on the Havocs strained under the added pressure but showed no signs of faltering.

Once again, the Japanese lack of radar hurt them as the speed and altitude (20,000 feet) of the reconnaissance bombers made it impossible for the Zeroes on combat air patrol to make an effective interception.

The A-20s passed over the harbor at high speed and were gone before the fighter pilots had a chance to react. Since neither plane was fitted out for reconnaissance, the duty of taking pictures fell to trained photographers wielding hand held cameras from the bombardier positions. After passing over the harbor, the pilots continued west for 50 miles at high speed before slowing to their cruising speed and swinging to the south and east for Wyndham.

Zheng He

1200 Hours, 26 August 1942, Wyndham, Australia – The photo-reconnaissance A-20s were on the ground at Wyndham by 1200 hours where the joined the attack squadrons dispersed around the field at the small air base along with the host unit, the P-40 equipped No. 77 Squadron. While the film as developed, the crews briefed the squadron commanders and several of the senior pilots, describing Koepang as, “jam packed with ships.”

At Koepang the reconnaissance mission indicated to the Japanese that a raid was imminent, probably early the next morning either at sun up or shortly afterwards. Additional reconnaissance aircraft were launched from the seaplane base to cover the Indian Ocean to the south of Timor due to concerns that one or more of the enemy carriers known to be operating south of Java had moved east to be in position to attack the Japanese on Timor.

With the unloading of the cargo ships continuing, the captains of the escorting warships were ordered to raise steam and be prepared to sortie should the situation warrant it.

Donald Reaver

Zheng He

1400 Hours, 26 August 1942, Darwin, Australia – The destroyer HMAS Stuart was back in port and was tied up at the pier with the three French destroyers and all four ships were undergoing repairs with workers swarming over them. Several ambulances were waiting for Stuart to dock and as soon as she was tied up, medical personnel rushed on board to take off her wounded crew members.

Commander Spurgeon expected to relieved of command, instead he found that he his quick thinking while engaged with superior forces had already earned him a great deal of praise.


Lost Freeway



which is why Ludovic Kennedys father was NOT awarded a VC for his action with HMS Rawalpindi against the twins

while Fegen of the HMS Jervis Bay WAS for his fight against Scheer.

Controvery warning:

IMHO Kennedy did not even deserve the postumous "mentioned in despatches" he was given.
and had he survived should have been quietly cashiered
or even better publically courtmartialed for killing 250+ men for no military gain.


Zheng He

Zheng He

1700 Hours, 26 August 1942, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean – It did not take long for the Phosphate Air Force to record its first kill. Since the failure of the last attempt to invade Christmas Island, the Japanese had been conducting Bed Check Charlie raids with aircraft out of Java. This time the job fell to two E8N Dave floatplanes from the seaplane tender Sanuki Maru in port at Tjilitjap.

The radar set on Christmas Island picked up the incoming bandits 25 miles out and the two Gloster Gladiators on combat air patrol were ordered by the newly promoted Wing Commander Stafford Beez on duty in the air operations shack to climb to 15,000 feet.

Earlier that day the submarine I-19 had reported an increase in enemy air activity around Christmas Island but the report had not yet made to the line units. As the Dave’s approached the island and prepared to drop their 30kg bombs, the RAAF radar operators vectored the Gladiators on to the approaching radar contact.

Both Daves were riddled by machine gun fire from the Gladiators, but one of the Japanese observers managed to get off a single word message, “Fighters” before he and his pilot met his demise. After scoring their kills, the Gladiator pilots made a low pass over the airfield before touching down.

April 1942 Alternate Indian Ocean

1500 Hours, 30 May 1942, Indian Ocean, 340 Miles Southwest of Sabang - The G4M Betty out of Sabang was over 50 miles beyond the point where the Nell had reported sighting the enemy task force two hours early. For the perplexed crew on the bomber in meant one of two things - either the task force had changed course or the sighting report had been wrong.

However, a few minutes later their lucked changed. One of the pilots spotted a floatplane below them flying due east. The Betty's pilots changed course and dropped altitude to follow the unsuspecting aircraft, in this case a Supermarine Walrus from HMS Warspite on ASW patrol. Ten minutes later they were rewarded when they sighted a large formation of ships including three aircraft carriers heading due south. As the bomber scurried into the clouds and swung north to head home the radio operator sent out his sighting report hoping the strike force which was in the air by now would pick it up, "Three CV, two BB, distance 350, course 180, bearing 180, speed 15."
Back at Sabang, the message was picked up and relayed to the commander of the air strike that had been in the air for almost 30 minutes although he had also picked up the sighting report and adjusted the course of his 38 plane strike force accordingly.

The Japanese were not the only ones who picked up the sighting report from the Betty. While the radar operators on the British ships had trouble sorting out the Japanese bomber from their own planes the FECB operators on HMS Indomitable had no trouble intercepting and translating the scouting report that was sent in the clear.

There was no doubt in anyone's minds that the enemy had a firm fix on the task force and that a strike was likely inbound. The air defense plan that had been worked out over the past several days based in part on lessons learned from OPERATION FRANTIC was put into motion. First HMS Illustrious and HMS Formidable recovered the Martlets they had combat air patrol while HMS Indomitable launched seven Fulmars. The Fulmars climbed to 20,000 feet where six would serve as the forward high altitude barrier CAP while the seventh with Lieutenant Commander Bill Bruen of No. 800 Squadron in the observer's seat would perform an airborne control role.

Shortly after the Fulmars launched, Illustrious and Formidable put up a total of 16 Martlets while both carriers spotted an additional eight Martlets each and HMS Indomitable spotted six Sea Hurricanes and four Sea Gladiators.

20 April 1942 - History

Dorothea Lange’s tremendous body of work for the War Relocation Authority, contains four chilling frames that may be among the most powerful photographs of wartime San Francisco.

Superficially, they are simply pictures of children at Raphael Weill School, O’Farrell and Buchanan streets, then in the heart of “Little Tokio.” Raphael Weill was a famed San Francisco business leader who founded the White House department store.

These photographs document an innocent warmth, friendship, and patriotism — set against great world events sweeping around these children, and the exile of the Japanese from San Francisco that would be complete one month after Lange visited the school.

It is the subversive nature of Lange’s photography at Raphael Weill School that is so compelling.

The neutrality of the lens allows her to clearly show contempt for placing children in internment camps as enemies of the American people.

It is this jarring juxtoposition of human values — and errant public policy — that makes Lange’s photographs at once riveting, chilling — and heartbreaking.

Lange’s photographs speak to a shameful, infamous moment of American history as few others can.

Historical Context for the Photographs

The first 644 Japanese had been evacuated by Gen. DeWitt’s Wartime Civil Control Authority from San Francisco April 7, 1942, and sent to Santa Anita Race Track in Southern California.

Lange, according to WRA records, began photography at the school Thursday, April 16, 1942. She took more photos the following Monday, April 20, two days after Doolittle’s raid on Japan.

April 27, 1942, seven days after Lange left Raphael Weill School, registration began for another wave of internments, and the next day, Friday, April 28, half of the Japanese were removed from San Francisco and housed in converted horse stalls at Tanforan Race Track in San Mateo County. By May 20, they were all gone, including every Japanese child in Dorothea Lange’s photographs.

The WRA captions locate the school at Geary and Buchanan streets. It is actually still on O’Farrell at Buchanan, and is currently named Rosa Parks School. One block away is the original “Japanese YMCA.” All Japanese housing in the area was long ago demolished, and replaced with subsidized low-income projects, as part of a redevelopment plan that followed the Japanese evacuation.

The WCCA used Raphael Weill School as a collection point for the last registered Japanese. On the morning of May 20, 1942 the last 274 Japanese in San Francisco were loaded onto six Greyhound buses at the school, and taken, with a military escort, to the Tanforan Assembly Center.

Admirers of Lange’s photographs, who visit the school, will quickly recognize the buildings and the courtyard where these pictures were taken. The school has changed little during the past 58 years.

Gladys Hansen
March 1999 The Four Photographs

These are the original WRA captions for Dorothea Lange’s Raphael Weill School photographs:

PowerPoint Presentations showing the Tanforan Assembly Center and the Manzanar Relocation Center are available from the Museum. The Tanforan presentation contains 20 photographs, with original WRA captions, taken by Dorothea Lange in early 1942. This photo essay closely examines the horse stalls used to house San Francisco internees and the primitive living conditions.

Timeline: 50 Years of Spaceflight

On Oct. 4, 2007, the Space Age celebrated the 50th anniversary of the historic launch of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, by the former Soviet Union.

The space shot also launched the Space Race to the moon between the United States and the Soviet Union. But despite that turbulent beginning, the initial launch has led to five decades of triumphs and tragedies in space science and exploration.

Below is a timeline by Space News and SPACE.com chronicling the first 50 years of spaceflight. You are invited to walk through the half century of space exploration and click related links for more in depth information:

Sometime in the 11th century: China combines sulfur, charcoal and saltpeter (potassium nitrate) to make gunpowder, the first fuel used to propel early rockets in Chinese warfare.

July 4, 1054: Chinese astronomers observe the supernova in Taurus that formed the Crab Nebula.

Mid-1700s: Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysome in India, begins manufacturing rockets sheathed in iron, not cardboard or paper, to improve their range and stability.

March 16, 1926: Robert Goddard, sometimes referred to as the "Father of Modern Rocketry," launches the first successful liquid-fueled rocket.

July 17, 1929: Robert Goddard launches a rocket that carries with it the first set of scientific tools &mdash a barometer and a camera &mdash in Auburn, Mass. The launch was Goddard's fourth.

Feb. 18, 1930: The dwarf planet Pluto is discovered by American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.

Oct. 3, 1942: Germany successfully test launches the first ballistic missile, the A4, more commonly known as the V-2, and later uses it near the end of European combat in World War II.

Sep. 29, 1945: Wernher von Braun arrives at Ft. Bliss, Texas, with six other German rocket specialists.

Oct. 14, 1947: American test pilot Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier for the first time in the X-1, also known as Glamorous Glennis.

Oct. 4, 1957: A modified R-7 two-stage ICBM launches the satellite Sputnik 1 from Tyuratam. The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States begins.

Nov. 3, 1957: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2 with the first living passenger, the dog Laika, aboard.

Dec. 6, 1957: A Vanguard TV-3 carrying a grapefruit-sized satellite explodes at launch a failed response to the Sputnik launch by the United States.

Jan. 31, 1958: Explorer 1, the first satellite with an onboard telemetry system, is launched by the United States into orbit aboard a Juno rocket and returns data from space.

Oct. 7, 1958: NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan publicly announces NASA's manned spaceflight program along with the formation of the Space Task Group, a panel of scientist and engineers from space-policy organizations absorbed by NASA. The announcement came just six days after NASA was founded.

Jan. 2, 1959: The U.S.S.R. launches Luna 1, which misses the moon but becomes the first artificial object to leave Earth orbit.

Jan. 12, 1959: NASA awards McDonnell Corp. the contract to manufacture the Mercury capsules.

Feb. 28, 1959: NASA launches Discover 1, the U.S. first spy satellite, but it is not until the Aug. 11, 1960, launch of Discover 13 that film is recovered successfully.

May 28, 1959: The United States launches the first primates in space, Able and Baker, on a suborbital flight.

Aug. 7, 1959: NASA's Explorer 6 launches and provides the first photographs of the Earth from space.

Sept. 12, 1959: The Soviet Union's Luna 2 is launched and two days later is intentionally crashed into the Moon.

Sept. 17, 1959: NASA's X-15 hypersonic research plane, capable of speeds to Mach 6.7, makes its first powered flight.

Oct. 24, 1960: To rush the launch of a Mars probe before the Nov. 7 anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, Field Marshall Mitrofan Nedelin ignored several safety protocols and 126 people are killed when the R-16 ICBM explodes at the Baikonur Cosmodrome during launch preparations.

Feb. 12, 1961: The Soviet Union launches Venera to Venus, but the probe stops responding after a week.

April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space with a 108-minute flight on Vostok 1 in which he completed one orbit.

May 5, 1961: Mercury Freedom 7 launches on a Redstone rocket for a 15-minute suborbital flight, making Alan Shepard the first American in space.

May 25, 1961: In a speech before Congress, President John Kennedy announces that an American will land on the moon and be returned safely to Earth before the end of the decade.

Oct. 27, 1961: Saturn 1, the rocket for the initial Apollo missions, is tested for the first time.

Feb. 20, 1962: John Glenn makes the first U.S. manned orbital flight aboard Mercury 6.

June 7, 1962: Wernher von Braun backs the idea of a Lunar Orbit Rendezvous mission.

July 10, 1962: The United States launches Telstar 1, which enables the trans-Atlantic transmission of television signals.

June 14, 1962: Agreements are signed establishing the European Space Research Organisation and the European Launcher Development Organisation. Both eventually were dissolved.

July 28, 1962: The U.S.S.R launches its first successful spy satellite, designated Cosmos 7.

Aug. 27, 1962: Mariner 2 launches and eventually performs the first successful interplanetary flyby when it passes by Venus.

Sept. 29, 1962: Canada's Alouette 1 launches aboard a NASA Thor-Agena B rocket, becoming the first satellite from a country other than the United States or Soviet Union.

June 16, 1963: Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman to fly into space.

July 28, 1964: Ranger 7 launches and is the Ranger series' first success, taking photographs of the moon until it crashes into its surface four days later.

April 8, 1964: Gemini 1, a two-seat spacecraft system, launches in an unmanned flight.

Aug. 19, 1964: NASA's Syncom 3 launches aboard a Thor-Delta rocket, becoming the first geostationary telecommunications satellite.

Oct. 12, 1964: The Soviet Union launches Voskhod 1, a modified Vostok orbiter with a three-person crew.

March 18, 1965: Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov makes the first spacewalk from the Voskhod 2 orbiter.

March 23, 1965: Gemini 3, the first of the manned Gemini missions, launches with a two-person crew on a Titan 2 rocket, making astronaut Gus Grissom the first man to travel in space twice.

June 3, 1965: Ed White, during the Gemini 4 mission, becomes the first American to walk in space.

July 14, 1965: Mariner 4 executes the first successful Mars flyby.

Aug. 21, 1965: Gemini 5 launches on an eight-day mission.

Dec. 15, 1965: Gemini 6 launches and performs a rendezvous with Gemini 7.

Jan. 14, 1966: The Soviet Union's chief designer, Sergei Korolev, dies from complications stemming from routine surgery, leaving the Soviet space program without its most influential leader of the preceding 20 years.

Feb. 3, 1966: The unmanned Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 makes the first soft landing on the Moon.

March 1, 1966: The Soviet Union's Venera 3 probe becomes the first spacecraft to land on the planetVenus, but its communications system failed before data could be returned.

March 16, 1966: Gemini 8 launches on a Titan 2 rocket and later docks with a previously launched Agena rocket &mdash the first docking between two orbiting spacecraft.

April 3, 1966: The Soviet Luna 10 space probe enters lunar orbit, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

June 2, 1966: Surveyor 1, a lunar lander, performs the first successful U.S. soft landing on the Moon.

Jan. 27, 1967: All three astronauts for NASA's Apollo 1 mission suffocate from smoke inhalationin a cabin fire during a launch pad test.

April 5, 1967: A review board delivers a damning report to NASA Administrator James Webb about problem areas in the Apollo spacecraft. The recommended modifications are completed by Oct. 9, 1968.

April 23, 1967: Soyuz 1 launches but myriad problems surface. The solar panels do not unfold, there are stability problems and the parachute fails to open on descent causing the death of Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov.

Oct. 11, 1968: Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, launches on a Saturn 1 for an 11-day mission in Earth orbit. The mission also featured the first live TV broadcast of humans in space.

Dec. 21, 1968: Apollo 8 launches on a Saturn V and becomes the first manned mission to orbit the moon.

Jan. 16, 1969: Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 rendezvous and dock and perform the first in-orbit crew transfer.

March 3, 1969: Apollo 9 launches. During the mission, tests of the lunar module are conducted in Earth orbit.

May 22, 1969: Apollo 10's Lunar Module Snoopy comes within 8.6 miles (14 kilometers) of the moon's surface.

July 20, 1969: Six years after U.S. President John F. Kennedy's assassination, the Apollo 11 crew lands on the Moon, fulfilling his promise to put an American there by the end of the decade and return him safely to Earth.

Nov. 26, 1965: France launches its first satellite, Astérix, on a Diamant A rocket, becoming the third nation to do so.

Feb. 11, 1970: Japan's Lambda 4 rocket launches a Japanese test satellite, Ohsumi into orbit.

April 13, 1970: An explosion ruptures thecommand module of Apollo 13, days after launch and within reach of the moon. Abandoning the mission to save their lives, the astronauts climb into the Lunar Module and slingshot around the Moon to speed their return back to Earth.

April 24, 1970: The People's Republic of China launches its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong-1, on a Long March 1 rocket, becoming the fifth nation capable of launching its own satellites into space.

Sept. 12: 1970: The Soviet Union launches Luna 16, the first successful automated lunar sample retrieval mission.

April 19, 1971: A Proton rocket launches thefirst space station, Salyut 1, from Baikonur.

June 6, 1971: Soyuz 11 launches successfully, docking with Salyut 1. The three cosmonauts are killed during re-entry from a pressure leak in the cabin.

July 26, 1971: Apollo 15 launches with a Boeing-built Lunar Roving Vehicle and better life-support equipment to explore the Moon.

Oct. 28, 1971: The United Kingdom successfully launches its Prospero satellite into orbit on a Black Arrow rocket, becoming the sixth nation capable of launching its own satellites into space.

Nov. 13, 1971: Mariner 9 becomes the first spacecraft to orbit Mars and provides the first complete map of the planet's surface.

Jan. 5, 1972: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that NASA is developing a reusable launch vehicle, the space shuttle.

March 3, 1972: Pioneer 10, the first spacecraft to leave the solar system, launches from Cape Kennedy, Fla.

Dec. 19, 1972: Apollo 17, the last mission to the moon, returns to Earth.

May 14, 1973: A Saturn V rocket launches Skylab, the United States' first space station.

March 29, 1974: Mariner 10 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Mercury.

April 19, 1975: The Soviet Union launches India's first satellite, Aryabhata.

May 31, 1975: The European Space Agency is formed.

July 17 1975: Soyuz-19 and Apollo 18 dock.

Aug. 9, 1975: ESA launches its first satellite, Cos-B, aboard a Thor-Delta rocket.

Sept. 9, 1975: Viking 2, composed of a lander and an orbiter, launches for Mars.

July 20, 1976: The U.S. Viking 1 lands on Mars, becoming the first successful Mars lander.

Aug. 20, 1977: Voyager 2 is launched on a course toward Uranus and Neptune.

Sept. 5, 1977: Voyager 1 is launched to perform flybys of Jupiter and Saturn.

Sept. 29, 1977: Salyut 6 reaches orbit. It is the first space station equipped with docking stations on either end, which allow for two vehicles to dock at once, including the Progress supply ship.

Feb. 22, 1978: The first GPS satellite, Navstar 1, launches aboard an Atlas F rocket.

July 11, 1979: Skylab, the first American space station, crashes back to Earth in the sparsely populated grasslands of western Australia.

Sept. 1, 1979: Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to fly past Saturn.

Dec. 24, 1979: The French-built Ariane rocket, Europe's first launch vehicle, launches successfully.

July 18 1980: India launches its Rohini 1 satellite. By using its domestically developed SLV-3 rocket, India becomes the seventh nation capable of sending objects into space by itself.

April 12, 1981: Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from Cape Canaveral, beginning the first space mission for NASA's new astronaut transportation system.

June 24, 1982: French air force test pilot Jean-Loup Chrétien launches to the Soviet Union's Salyut 7 aboard Soyuz T-6.

Nov. 11, 1982: Shuttle Columbia launches. During its mission, it deploys two commercial communications satellites.

June 18, 1983: Sally Ride aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger becomes the first American woman in space.

Feb. 7, 1984: Astronauts Bruce McCandless and Robert Stewart maneuver as many as 328 feet (100 meters) from the Space Shuttle Challenger using the Manned Maneuvering Unit, which contains small thrusters, in the first ever untethered spacewalks.

April 8, 1984: Challenger crew repairs the Solar Max satellite during a spacewalk.

Sept. 11: 1985: The International Cometary Explorer, launched by NASA&enspin 1978, performs the first comet flyby.

Jan. 24, 1986: Voyager 2 completes the first and only spacecraft flyby of Uranus.

Jan. 28, 1986: Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after launch after its external tank exploded, grounding the shuttle fleet for more than two years.

Feb. 20, 1986: The Soviet Union launches theMir space station.

March 13, 1986: A two-cosmonaut crew launches aboard Soyuz T-15 to power up the Mir space station. During their 18-month mission, they also revive the abandoned Salyut 7, and take parts that are later placed aboard Mir.

June 15, 1988: PanAmSat launches its first satellite, PanAmSat 1, on an Ariane 4 rocket, giving Intelsat its first taste of competition.

Sept. 19, 1988: Israel launches its first satellite, the Ofeq 1 reconnaissance probe, aboard an Israeli Shavit rocket.

Nov. 15, 1988: The Soviet Union launches its Buran space shuttle on its only flight, an unpiloted test.

May 4, 1989: The Space Shuttle Atlantis launches the Magellan space probe to use radar to map the surface of Venus.

Oct. 18, 1989: Shuttle Atlantis launches with Jupiter-bound Galileo space probe on board.

April 7, 1990: China launches the Asiasat-1 communications satellite, completing its first commercial contract.

April 25, 1990: The Space Shuttle Discovery releases the Hubble Space Telescopeinto Earth orbit.

Oct. 29, 1991: The U.S. Galileo spacecraft, on its way to Jupiter, successfully encounters the asteroid Gaspra, obtaining images and other data during its flyby.

April 23, 1992: The U.S. Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft detects the first evidence of structure in the residual radiation left over from the Big Bang that created the Universe.

Dec. 28, 1992: Lockheed and Khrunichev Enterprise announce plans to form Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia International, a new company to market Proton rockets.

June 21, 1993: Shuttle Endeavour launches carrying Spacehab, a privately owned laboratory that sits in the shuttle cargo bay.

Dec. 2, 1993: Endeavour launches on a mission to repair theHubble Space Telescope.

Dec. 17, 1993: DirecTV launches its first satellite, DirecTV 1, aboard an Ariane 4 rocket.

Feb. 7, 1994: The first Milstar secure communications satellite launches. The geosynchronous satellites are used by battlefield commanders and for strategic communications.

Oct. 15, 1994: India launches its four-stage PolarSatellite Launch Vehicle for the first time.

Jan. 26, 1995: A Chinese Long March rocket carrying the Hughes-built Apstar-1 rocket fails. The accident investigation, along with the probe of a subsequent Long March failure that destroyed an Intelsat satellite, leads to technology-transfer allegations that ultimately result in the U.S. government barring launches of American-built satellites on Chinese rockets.

Feb. 3, 1995: The Space Shuttle Discovery launches anddocks with the Mir space station.

March 15, 1995: Aerospace giants Lockheed Corp. and Martin Marietta Corp. merge.

July 13, 1995: Galileo releases its space probe, which is bound for Jupiter and its moons.

Aug. 7, 1996: NASA and Stanford University researchers announce a paper contending that a 4-billion-year-old Martian meteorite, called ALH 84001, found in Antarctica in 1984, contains fossilized traces of carbonate materials that suggest primitive life might once have existed on Mars. That contention remains controversial.

May 5, 1997: Satellite mobile phone company Iridium launches its first five satellites on a Delta 2 rocket.

June 25 1997: An unmanned Russian Progress supply spacecraft collides with the Mir space station.

July 4, 1997: The Mars Pathfinder lander and its accompanying Sojourner rover touch down on the surface of Mars.

Aug. 1, 1997: The Boeing Co. and the McDonnell Douglas Corp. merge, keeping Boeing's name.

Feb. 14, 1998: Globalstar, a satellite mobile telephone company, launches its first four satellites on a Delta 2 rocket.

Sept. 9, 1998: A Russian Zenit 2 rocket launches and subsequently crashes, destroying all 12 Loral-built Globalstar satellites aboard. The payload had an estimated value of about $180 million.

Nov. 20, 1998: Russia's Zarya control module, the first segment of the International Space Station, launches into space and unfurls its solar arrays.

March 27, 1999: Sea Launch Co. launches a demonstration satellite, successfully completing its first launch.

July 23, 1999: The Chandra X-ray observatory, NASA's flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, launches aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia.

Aug. 13, 1999: Iridium files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, after being unable to pay its creditors. Iridium Satellite LLC later acquired the original Iridium's assets from bankruptcy.

Nov. 19, 1999: China successfully test launches the unmanned Shenzhou 1.

July 10, 2000: Europe's largest aerospace company, European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co., EADS, forms with the consolidation of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG of Munich, Aerospatiale Matra S.A. of Paris, and Construcciones Aeronáuticas S.A. of Madrid.

March 18, 2001: After launch delays with XM-1, XM Satellite Radio's XM-2 satellite becomes the company's first satellite in orbit when it is launched by Sea Launch Co.

March 23, 2001: After being mothballed in 1999, Mir descends into the Earth's atmosphere and breaks up over the Pacific Ocean.

May 6, 2001: U.S. entrepreneur Dennis Tito returns to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft to become the world's first paying tourist to visit the International Space Station.

Aug. 29, 2001: Japan's workhorse launch system, the two-stage H-2A rocket, launches for the first time.

Feb. 15, 2002: After having trouble selling its satellite mobile phone service, Globalstar voluntarily files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from escalating creditor debt. The company emerged from bankruptcy April 14, 2004.

Feb. 1, 2003: The Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates as it re-enters the Earth's atmosphere, killing the crew. Damage from insulating foam hitting the orbiter's leading wing on liftoff is later cited as the cause of the accident.

Aug 22, 2003: The VLS-V03, a Brazilian prototype rocket, explodes on the launch pad at Alcántara killing 21 people.

Aug. 25, 2003: NASA launches the Spitzer Space Telescope aboard a Delta rocket.

Oct. 1, 2003: Japan's two space agencies, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and the National Space Development Agency of Japan, merge into the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Oct. 15, 2003: Yang Liwei becomes China's first taikonaut, having launched aboard Shenzhou 5.

Jan. 4, 2004: The first Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, lands on Mars. Its twin, Opportunity lands Jan. 25.

Jan. 14, 2004: President George W. Bush advocates space exploration missions to the moon and Mars for NASA in his Vision for Space Exploration speech.

Sept. 20, 2004: India launches its three-stage Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle for the first time.

Oct. 4, 2004: Scaled Composites' SpaceShipOne piloted craft wins the X Prize by flying over 100 kilometers above Earth twice within two weeks.

July 26, 2005: Discovery becomes the first shuttle to launch since the Columbia disaster more than two years before. While the crew returned safely, the loss of several pieces of foam debris prompted further investigation, which delayed future shuttle missions.

Oct. 12, 2005: A two-taikonaut crew launches aboard the Chinese Shenzhou 6.

Oct 19, 2005: The last of the Martin Marietta-built Titan 4 heavy-lift rockets launches.

Jan. 19, 2006: New Horizons, NASA's first-ever mission to the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, launches atop an Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Flies past Jupiter one year later in what is billed as NASA's fastest mission to date.

July 3, 2006: Intelsat acquires fellow fixed satellite service provider PanAmSat for $6.4 billion.

July 4, 2006: NASA's second post-Columbia accident test flight, STS-121 aboard Discovery, begins a successful space station-bound mission, returning the U.S. orbiter fleet to flight status.

Sept. 9., 2006: NASA resumes construction of the International Space Station with the launch of the shuttle Atlantis on STS-115 after two successful return to flight test missions. Atlantis' launch occurs after nearly four years without a station construction flight.

Oct. 11, 2006: Lockheed Martin completes the sale of its majority share in International Launch Services to Space Transport Inc. for $60 million.

Jan. 11, 2007: China downs one of its weather satellites, Fengyun-1C, with a ground launched missile. In doing so, China joins Russia and the United States as the only nations to have successfully tested anti-satellite weapons.

April 6, 2007: The European Commission approves the acquisition of French-Italian Alcatel Alenia by Paris-based Thales, thus creating satellite manufacturer Thales Alenia Space.?

Aug. 8, 2007: NASA's Space Shuttle Endeavour launches toward the International Space Station on the STS-118 construction mission. The shuttle crew includes teacher-astronaut Barbara Morgan, NASA's first educator spaceflyer, who originally served backup for the first Teacher-in-Space Christa McAuliffe who was lost with six crewmates during the 1986 Challenger accident.

Sept. 27, 2007: Dawn, the first ion-powered probe to visit two celestial bodies in one go, launches on an eight-year mission to the asteroid Vesta and dwarf planet Ceres, the two largest space rocks in the solar system.

Oct. 1, 2007: NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, the first female commander of the International Space Station, prepares for an Oct. 10 launch with her Expedition 16 crewmate Yuri Malenchenko and Malaysia's first astronaut Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor. Whitson, and NASA's second female shuttle commander Pamela Melroy, will command a joint space station construction mission in late October.

Oct. 4, 2007: The Space Age turns 50, five decades after the historic launch of Sputnik 1.

20 Historic Moments in the Fight for LGBTQ Rights

As we celebrate this year's Pride Month throughout the country, many of us are focused on the current issues that face the LGBTQ community, and what we can do moving forward to fix them. And while it’s hugely important to keep moving forward, it’s also important to look back, and see how far we’ve come. So, before you head out to the next Pride parade, take a look at some of the most major moments in our country’s history that have strongly propelled the LGBTQ rights movement forward.

1924: The first gay rights group is established.

World War I veteran Henry Gerber founded the Society for Human Rights in Chicago. The group was the first gay rights group in America, and its newsletter, “Friendship and Freedom,” was the United States’ first recorded gay rights publication.

January, 1958: The Supreme Court rules in favor of gay rights.

After the U.S. Post Office refused to deliver America’s first widely distributed pro-gay publication, ONE: The Homosexual Magazine, the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court — and the court ruled in favor of gay rights for the first time, making it a major landmark case in LGBTQ history.

April 21, 1966: The Mattachine Society organizes a gay rights “Sip-In.”

During a time when most bars refused to serve gay people, the Mattachine Society, one of the country’s first gay rights organizations, staged a “Sip-In,” during which activists entered a New York City bar, announced they were gay, ordered drinks, and waited to be served.

June 28, 1969: The Stonewall riots spark the beginning of the LGBT movement.

In the early morning hours on June 28, 1969, police performed a raid of the Stonewall Inn, a New York City gay bar — and the customers and their supporters took a stand. The event turned into a violent protest and led to a days-long series of riots. Those “Stonewall riots” are largely considered the start of the LGBTQ civil rights movement in the United States.

1973: Homosexuality is no longer declared a mental illness.

After years of studies, analysis, and changing cultural attitudes, the American Psychiatric Association’s board of directors removed homosexuality from the official list of mental illnesses, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a move that was upheld with a vote by the association’s membership.

1987: Barney Frank becomes second openly gay member of Congress.

After spending six years on Capitol Hill, Rep. Barney Frank (D-Mass.), voluntarily came out as gay, making him the second openly gay member of congress, and the first to come out voluntarily, in the country’s history.

April, 2000: Vermont takes a huge step toward same-sex marriage legalization.

Vermont became the first state in the country to give same-sex couples the right to enter into civil unions — legal partnerships which would grant those couples the same rights and benefits as those in legal marriages.

October, 2009: The Matthew Shepard & James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act becomes a law.

President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act into law. The act was named for two men who were murdered in hate crimes — Matthew Shepard because he was gay, and James Byrd, Jr. because he was black. The new law expanded previous hate crime legislation to officially categorize crimes motivated by actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability as hate crimes.

September, 2011: “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” is over.

President Obama officially revoked the anti-gay, discriminatory “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” law, which prevented openly gay Americans from serving in the U.S. armed forces.

June, 2013: SCOTUS strikes down the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA).

The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which became a law in 1996, declared that marriages between gay or lesbian couples were not recognized by the federal government, meaning those couples could not receive legal benefits — like Social Security and health insurance — that straight married couples could. But in 2013, the Supreme Court ruled DOMA to be unconstitutional, which meant same-sex couples married in their own states could receive those federal benefits.

January, 2015: President Obama acknowledges the LGTBQ community in the State of the Union address.

For the first time in U.S. history, the words “lesbian,” “bisexual,” and “transgender,” were used in the president’s State of the Union address, when President Obama mentioned that, as Americans, we “respect human dignity” and condemn the persecution of minority groups.

April, 2015: Obama calls for end to conversion therapy.

After the tragic suicide of a transgender teenager who was subjected to Christian conversion therapy, President Obama publicly called for an end to the dangerous practice meant to change people's sexual orientation or gender identities.

June, 2015: Sexual orientation is added to the military’s anti-discrimination policy.

Though “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” was repealed in 2011, sexual orientation was still not a protected class (unlike race, religion, sex, age, and national origin) under the Military Equal Opportunity Policy — until June of 2015, when the U.S. Defense Secretary, Ashton Carter, announced that it would officially be added to the anti-discrimination policy.

June 26, 2015: Love wins.

The Supreme Court finally and officially declared same-sex marriage a Constitutional right nationwide, meaning all states must allow Americans to get married, regardless of their gender or sexual orientation.

July, 2015: The military will allow transgender Americans to serve openly in the military.

In July of 2015, the U.S. Defense Secretary, Ashton Carter, announced that the military would lift a ban that prevents transgender Americans from serving in the country’s armed forces. This rule went into effect, but now-President Donald Trump rescinded this right, again banning transgender people from the military as of April, 2019.

July 23, 2015: The Equality Act is introduced.

Senators Jeff Merkley, Tammy Baldwin, and Cory Booker, as well as Representative David Cicilline formerly introduced The Equality Act, which would make LGBTQ individuals a protected class and grant them basic legal protections in areas of life including education, housing, employment, credit, and more.

May, 2016: The Stonewall Inn will become a national monument.

The Obama administration announced that they are preparing to designate New York’s Stonewall Inn, the site of those historic riots in 1969, the first-ever national monument dedicated to gay rights.

May, 2016: The Obama administration publicly supports transgender students.

In the midst of anti-transgender movements throughout the country, President Obama and his administration issued a directive to all public schools that transgender students should be allowed to use the restrooms that reflect their gender identity. Again, President Trump has reversed these gains, enacting and proposing numerous anti-trans policies.

November, 2018: LGBTQ candidates sweep the midterms

More than 150 LGBTQ candidates were elected into office in the 2018 midterm elections, putting a historic number of queer or transgender politicians in positions of power. These wins happened “from the U.S. Congress to governors’ mansions to state legislatures and city councils," Annise Parker, president and CEO of the Victory Institute and Victory Fund, told NBC News.

May, 2019: New York City will honor LGBTQ activists Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera with monuments

Re: RAF Defence of Ceylon - April 1942

Post by Tom from Cornwall » 24 Aug 2020, 18:25

I’m reading Churchill War Papers 1942 at the moment and saw a reference to the Australian government allowing 2 brigades from 6 Australian Division to be diverted to Ceylon in March 1942. There is then a reference to them insisting on sufficient air cover being provided which might tie up with the COS insistence that all Hurricanes be left there and not diverted to India. I’ll post up documents at weekend when I’ve got more time.

Australian units had suffered from Luftwaffe attack in Greece and Crete and were, rightly, determined that they would not be committed to battle again except with reasonable air support.

Not sure if you have seen this mentioned in other documentation?

Re: RAF Defence of Ceylon - April 1942

Post by Rob Stuart » 24 Aug 2020, 23:29

1. In first para, is it worth saying something along the lines of: "They formed the nucleus of what had become [a reconstituted] 258 Squadron by 5 April". I hadn't realised that the original 258 was destroyed in Singapore, Java, Sumatra and at sea it seems a shame to miss an opportunity to honour the sacrifice of the original personnel.
I have added "a reconstituted" as you suggested and I'll be adding an end note explaining that the original 258 Sqn was destroyed during the defence of Singapore and the NEI.

2. Para 4: Perhaps worth mentioning that by 18 Feb (so well before INDOMITABLE left Port Sudan), Air Ministry were directing HQ RAF ME to make the arrangements for loading onto INDOMITABLE "on assumption that this [destination] will be CEYLON". [Air Ministry signal AX.992 of 17/2]
The earliest document that I'm aware of which proposed changing the destination for Indomitable's second ferry run to Ceylon instead of Java is a 16 February War Cabinet Joint Planning Staff aide memoire entitled “Far East Policy”, in CAB 79/18 (see below), so it's certainly true that the option of sending the second batch to Ceylon was under discussion well before it was loaded on Indomitable. I can probably say a bit more about that then I do now but I'm already up to 16,000 words with a lot left to write, so I don't want to add a lot more.

3. Para 5: is it worth giving an example of one of the misinformed authors? I wonder if they have misunderstood fact that COS actually stopped diversion of Hurricanes from Ceylon to India rather than the diversion of Hurricanes to Ceylon?
Tomlinson in The Most Dangerous Moment is one of these authors. I can add a reference to him and/or others.

Nothing to add otherwise, I'm afraid, although it would be of interest (but no doubt very difficult) to understand how experienced units like 258 Squadron were in terms of individual pilots and also in terms of being controlled as a formation. I had a look in the squadron ORB and now understand the long gap between the end of Oct 41 and beginning of March 1942. The details of the arrangements made and farewell parties held by the Squadron in the UK in Oct 41 are now particularly poignant reading.

More power to your writing elbow!

In London the War Cabinet Joint Planning Staff submits an Aide Memoire entitled “Far East Policy” (in CAB 79/18) which, inter alia, predicts that Japan’s immediate objectives are:

(a) Completion of conquest of Philippines, Sumatra, and Java.
(b) Invasion of Burma. This would threaten Chinese ability to continue fighting.
(c) Japan may also assault Port Darwin and Ceylon.
(d) Attack on Samoa, Fiji and New Caledonia, to cut the Eastern reinforcement route.

5. Defeat of Germany would prejudice chances of ultimate Japanese victory. Japanese strategy will therefore be influenced by desire to give early help to Germany, and bias is is likely to be towards Indian Ocean.

6. Ability of United Nations to defeat Japan is dependent on supply lines through Indian Ocean and Pacific.

7. Japan will soon have clear run into both.

8. India, and Burma, Ceylon, our bases in the Indian Ocean, Australia, New Zealand and Fiji are all weakly defended.

9. By the seizure of Ceylon and raids on the Indian coast Japan could raise overwhelming internal security troubles in India, induce instability in Indian forces and threaten our communications to Middle East, Burma and Australia. Our fleet would be denied the use of Trincomalee and Colombo.

11. In the near future we may expect to see:-

(e) A determined attack in progress against Burma.
(f) Naval attack on our sea communications.
(g) Attack on Ceylon by a raid of the Pearl Harbour type or by general assault.

13. The basis of our general strategy lies in the safety of our sea communications, for which secure naval and air bases are essential. We must therefore make certain of our main bases, i.e. Burma, India, Ceylon and Australia, before we think of reinforcing the Malayan barrier.

14. (1) Indian Ocean. Strength of Eastern Fleet by June:-

7 Capital ships (4 old)
3 Aircraft Carriers

No secure bases in Indian Ocean. Required:-

(a) Security of Ceylon covering Colombo and Trincomalee.
(b) Development of Addu Atoll.
(c) Development of additional bases for reconnaissance and striking forces

20. Order of priority for reinforcement [. ] :-

(a) Burma – vital to prolongation of Chinese efforts.
Ceylon – loss would imperil whole British war effort in Middle East and Far East.
(b) Fiji and New Caledonia […]
(c) Eastern and South West Australia […]
(d) India – Insecurity will precipitate grave internal security problems and induce induce instability among Indian troops in other theatres.
(e) Port Darwin […]
(f) New Zealand […]

22. We should dispatch no further British reinforcements to Java or to the Malay Barrier.

23. We should dispatch the following air forces to Ceylon as an initial garrison:-

(a) 2 Hurricane Squadrons (for Trincomalee)
20 Fulmar F.A.A. Aircraft
1 Blenheim squadron

To achieve this the Indomitable should transport Nos. 261 and 30 Fighter Squadrons from the Middle East complete with ground personnel, equipment and 50 Hurricanes.

One Blenheim bomber squadron should be withdrawn from Middle East for Ceylon. […]

20 April 1942 - History

Entry from the diary of Eva Ginzová from April 23, 1945, in which she describes the arrival of a transport of survivors from Auschwitz-Birkenau in the Theresienstadt ghetto.

April 23 [1945]

[. . .] My God, the things that are happening here now, it’s difficult to describe. One afternoon (on Friday, April 20), I was at work when we saw a freight train go past. There were people sticking their heads out of the window. The looked awful! They were pale, completely yellow and green in the face, unshaven, emaciated, with sunken cheeks and shaven heads, dressed in prison clothes. . . and with a strange shine in their eyes. . . from hunger.

I ran to the ghetto straightaway (we’re working outside at the moment), to the railway station. They were just getting off the train, if one can call it getting off. Very few could stand on their feet (bones, covered in nothing but skin), others lay on the floor, completely exhausted. They’d been traveling for two weeks with hardly anything to eat. They came from Buchenwald and Auschwitz (Oświęcim). Most of them were Hungarian and Poles. I was so upset I thought I would collapse. I was still looking for our Petr among them since some of those who arrived now were those who had left from here. But our Petr wasn’t there.

One transport after another started to arrive now. Hungarians, Frenchmen, Slovaks, Poles (they had spent seven years in concentration camps), Czechs too. No one from our family. And the number of dead among them! A whole pile in every car. Dressed in rags, barefoot or in broken clogs. It was such a terrible sight that hardly anyone had seen before. I wish I could express on paper all the things that are happening inside me. But I’m not talented enough to do that.

And how the poor people threw themselves at any food they were given, whatever it was. How they fought over it — awful! A woman gave a lump of sugar to a sick boy, he was about seventeen. He burst out crying. He was sobbing terribly, kept looking at the piece of sugar and the bread the woman had given him and kept on crying: “Sugar, sugar, sugar, weissbrot, weissbrot [white bread].” Then he ate it. God knows how long it had been since he had seen any. Some have spotted fever and many other nasty diseases.

And those who arrived from Litzmannstadt [Łódź] and from Birkenau told us awful things. They said Oświęcim[Auschwitz] and Birkenau were made into one. They used to be two concentration camps right next to each other. Now it has been liberated. Every transport that had arrived in Birkenau had had everything taken away and been divided immediately. Children under fourteen, people over fifty, went straight into the gas chambers and were then burned. Moreover, they always selected some more to be gassed from those who remained. And the food was lousy. Coffee, soup, coffee, and so on. I wouldn’t believe any of it if I wasn’t told about it by those who themselves experienced it. I’m so worried about Petr and whether he’s still alive. 1

20 April 1942 - History

The Third Anniversary of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was commemorated by the issue of the overprinted stamps above (Mi. #83-84, Sc. #80-81) on March 3, 1942. The overprint consists of the Reich Eagle emblem and the dates "15.III.1939 / 15.III.1942".

Something very interesting happens with the Protectorate stamp issues right here .

This period, from late 1941 through about May 1942, coincides with the appointment of SS officer Reinhard Heydrich as Reichsprotektor, the crackdown on Czech institutions, the reorganization of the Czech government, and finally the arrest and execution of the Czech prime minister.

Up through the March 1942 issue shown above, stamps of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia had always been inscribed "Böhmen und Mähren" / "Čechy a Morava".

With the April 1942 Hitler's Birthday issue shown below, the stamps are now inscribed "Deutsches Reich" at the top and then "Böhmen und Mähren Čechy a Morava" in tiny letters at the bottom. All the subsequent stamp issues, through the end of the Protectorate, are inscribed in this way.

It appears that during this period, sometime around April 1942, Bohemia & Moravia went from being a sovereign Czech state, under the "protection" of the Third Reich, to being one of the states of Greater Germany!

A few weeks after the issue of the Hitler Birthday set below, the assassination of Reichsprotektor Reinhard Heydrich occurred, causing brutal reprisals and the first use of concentration camps within the Protectorate.

The set of four stamps shown above (Mi. 85-88, Sc. #B9-12) was issued on April 20 to celebrate the 53rd Birthday of Adolph Hitler. The stamps depict Adolph Hitler giving a speech.

One would imagine that any large German occupation state would eventually issue an extensive series of definitive postage stamps depicting the portrait of the Führer! . well, here it is (below)!

The twenty-three Bohemia and Moravia definitive postage stamps shown in the images above (Mi. #89-110, #142, Sc. #62-83, #90) were issued beginning in July 1942. They all depict the H. Hoffman portrait of Adolph Hitler. The 4.20 K. denomination shown above and inscribed "GROSSDEUTSCHES REICH" was issued in February 1945.

The 10 H. through 80 H. denominations are photogravure, and the 1 K. through 50 K. denominations are engraved. All the stamps are perforated 12 1/2.

Incredibly, none of the definitive postage stamps in this series were ever issued, either in coils, or in booklets!

Large stocks of these issues fell into the hands of the Allied occupation forces, after the war. Many of them were defaced and / or overprinted for local usage by postal officials during the period between the surrender of Germany and the re-establishment of the Republic of Czechoslovakia.

The two stamps shown above left (Mi. #111-12, Sc. #B13-14) were issued on September 1, 1942 to publicize and raise money for the German Red Cross. Instead of having labels with the Red Cross emblem between the stamps, on this issue, the emblem was printed on the stamp above the denomination.

As with the previous Red Cross issues, the stamps depict a Red Cross worker (nurse) tending to a very sick patient (soldier).

The stamp at the upper right (Mi. #113, Sc. #84) was issued in early January 1943 to publicize "Stamp Day". The design depicts a 17th Century Postal Messenger.

Stamp Day is an annual event for stamp collectors, which is usually celebrated every year with a new stamp issue by most of the World's countries.

EBay Auction and Store Links Germany - German Occupations

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20 April 1942 - History

2nd Saturday Family Program

Check out the Museum of Florida History's next in-person 2nd Saturday Family Program, From Waterways to the Moon—Traveling in Florida, on June 12 starting at 11:00 a.m. From Florida’s First People using dugout canoes to travel along waterways, to early tourists rumbling along in their new automobiles, all the way to thunderous rocket launches from Merritt Island, transportation has played a large role in shaping our state’s history and its people. This month's program features a tour through the museum to look at some of the different transportation methods the state has seen. Following the tour, guests can make their very own model rocket.

Beyond the Vote: Florida Women’s Activism

On August 26, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment granting women the right to vote officially became a part of the U.S. Constitution. The Museum is excited to commemorate the legacy of this milestone event with Beyond the Vote: Florida Women’s Activism, an exhibit showcasing the history of women’s activism in Florida. The exhibit discusses the women’s club movement, the suffrage movement, and explores other major reform efforts, such as environmental preservation, civil rights, women’s rights, and more. It concludes with a brief look at women’s activism today. Beyond the Vote contains more than 80 artifacts, as well as photographs, and video and audio clips that help to interpret Florida women’s activism.

20th of May— Emancipation in Florida

Join the Knott House Museum and the John G. Riley Museum on Thursday, May 20, 2021 for the virtual celebration of 20th of May. This online commemoration will be presented on the Knott House Museum's Facebook page. Learn more about this event and other community activities here.

On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing enslaved people in the rebelling Southern states. More than two years later, on May 10, 1865, Union General Edward McCook arrived in Tallahassee to take possession of the city from Southern forces. General McCook established his headquarters at the Hagner House, now known as the Knott House. On May 20, he declared the Emancipation Proclamation in effect. Former slaves celebrated this announcement with a picnic at Bull Pond, today's Lake Ella. Annually since 1865, communities in Tallahassee have celebrated May 20th as Emancipation Day.

Digital Learning Resources

The Museum of Florida History presents the annual summer reading program during the month of July. The 2021 theme, Tails and Tales, explores Florida’s animal kingdom both on land and in the water. Children are encouraged to read historically accurate fiction and nonfiction books and participate in hands-on activities to learn about Florida’s wonderful fauna. Kids who “tame all the tales,” by reading six or more books from the list, receive a special certificate signed by Secretary of State Laurel M. Lee and the Director of Museum Operations Lisa Barton.

Find additional information about the program and download a copy of this year’s list here.

Florida's Territorial Bicentennial

Florida—the ancestral homeland of varied indigenous peoples—became a United States Territory in 1821, thus ending more than 250 years of Spanish and British rule. To engage the public in learning more about this important transitional time in Florida’s history, the Florida Department of State (DOS) will highlight its territorial and early statehood period resources in 2021.

Watch the video: First bombing of Tokyo, 18 April 1942: the Doolittle Raid, WWII Pt 1