Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway, the son of Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, a doctor, was was born in Oak Park, Illinois, on 21st July, 1899. His mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a music teacher but had always wanted to be an opera singer. According to Carlos Baker, the author of Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story (1969), he began writing stories as a child: "Ernest loved to dramatize everything, continuing his boyhood habit of making up stories in which he was invariably the swashbuckling hero."

After being educated at the local high school, Hemingway rejected his father's idea of going to Oberlin College. Instead he accepted the offer of working for the Kansas City Star at $15 a week. He later recalled: "I covered the short-stop run which included the 15th Street police station, the Union Station, and the General Hospital. At the 15th Street station you covered crime, usually small, but you never knew when you might hit something larger. Union Station was everybody going in and out of town... some shady characters I got to know, and interviews with celebrities going through. The General Hospital was up a long hill from Union Station and there you got accidents and a double check on crimes of violence."

When the United States entered the First World War in 1917 Hemingway attempted to sign up for the army but was rejected because of a defective eye. He therefore joined the Red Cross as an ambulance driver. He later wrote: "One becomes so accustomed to all the dead being men that the sight of a dead woman is quite shocking. I first saw inversion of the usual sex of the dead after the explosion of a munition factory which had been situated in the countryside near Milan. We drove to the scene of the disaster in trucks along poplar-shaded roads. Arriving where the munition plant had been, some of us were put to patrolling about those large stocks of munitions which for some reason had not exploded, while others were put at extinguishing a fire which had gotten into the grass of an adjacent field; which task being concluded, we were ordered to search the immediate vicinity and surrounding fields for bodies. We found and carried to an improvised mortuary a good number of these and I must admit, frankly, the shock it was to find that those dead were women rather than men."

Hemingway was sent to Europe and was badly wounded on the Austro-Italian front: "There was a flash, as when a blast-furnace door is swung open, and a roar that started white and went red. I tried to breathe but my breath would not come. The ground was torn up and in front of my head there was a splintered beam of wood. In the jolt of my head I heard somebody crying. I heard the machine guns and rifles firing across the river. I tried to move but I could not move... The Italian I had with me had bled all over my coat, and my pants looked like somebody had made currant jelly in them and then punched holes to let the pulp out... I told them in Italian that I wanted to see my legs, though I was afraid to look... So we took off my trousers and the old limbs were still there but they were a mess. They couldn't figure out how I had walked 150 yards with a load with both knees shot through and my right shoe punctured in two big places also over 200 flesh wounds."

Hemingway was hospitalized in Milan. There was talk about possible amputation but Hemingway insisted on piece-by-piece extraction of the shrapnel "no matter how long it took or how great the pain." He even pried out some of the smaller fragments as they worked their way to the surface, using the point of a penknife. One of the other patients, Henry Villard, later claimed, "we all took turns conversing with him and encouraging him to forget his wounds." He also pointed out that the nurses "liked to exhibit him to visitors as their prize specimen of a wounded hero".

In a letter to his father Hemingway wrote: "it does give you an awfully satisfactory feeling to be wounded. There are no heroes in this war... All the heroes are dead... Dying is a very simple thing. I've looked at death and really I know. If I should have died, it would have been... quite the easiest thing I ever did... And how much better to die in all the happy period of undisillusioned youth, to go out in a blaze of light, than to have your body worn out and old and illusions shattered."

While in hospital Hemingway met and fell in love with a nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky. Hemingway described her as "a bit of heaven" who was "doubly attractive so far from home, cheerful, quick, sympathetic, with an almost mischievous sense of humour - an ideal personality for a nurse". Carlos Baker has argued: "She was beginning to reciprocate, though not to the degree that he would have liked. It was his first adult love affair - there is no trustworthy indication of any before it - and he hurled himself into it with uncommon devotion. She was the night nurse most of the time through August and early September. Although she was far too careful a nurse to neglect her other charges, her duties brought her frequently into his room, and she often returned to see him after the other boys had settled down.... Agnes refused to permit the affair to progress beyond the kissing stage. She took her duties too seriously to think of getting married and settling down, as Ernest wanted to do."

After the war Hemingway returned to the United States and worked as a journalist in Chicago. He then became a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Star. While in Europe he associated with a group of radical American journalists that included Max Eastman and George Seldes. Eastman, the former editor of the The Masses helped Hemingway get his work published in The Liberator and the New Masses. The American author, Gertrude Stein, who was based in Paris, also promoted Hemingway's work.

One of the world's leading journalists, Lincoln Steffens, was especially impressed with Hemingway's writing. According to Justin Kaplan, the author of Lincoln Steffens: A Biography (1974): "Among the younger men Steffens saw in Paris, Ernest Hemingway appeared to him to have the surest future, the most buoyant confidence, and the best grounds for it." Steffens told his partner, Ella Winter: "He's fascinated by cablese, sees it as a new way of writing." Winter explained: "Stef loved anything new, original, or experimental, and he especially cherished young people. He was sending Hemingway's stories to American magazines, and they were coming back, but this did not alter his opinion." Steffens told anyone who would listen: "Someone will recognize that boy's genius and then they'll all rush to publish him." Hemingway also encouraged Winter to write: "It's hell. It takes it all out of you; it nearly kills you; but you can do it."

Hemingway also came under the influence of the journalist, William Bolitho . He described him as "a strange-looking man with a white lantern-jawed face... that is supposed to haunt you if seen suddenly in a London fog". They met nearly every evening for dinner. It has been claimed that this "marked the beginning of Heminway's education in international politics." He did the same for Walter Duranty of the New York Times. Duranty later commented that Bolitho taught him "nearly all about the newspaper business that is worth knowing." He added that Bolitho "possessed to a remarkable degree... the gift of making a quick and accurate summary of facts and drawing there from the right, logical and inevitable conclusions."

Hemingway met Hadley Richardson in December, 1920. Hadley was eight years older than Hemingway and hen she expressed misgivings about their age difference, he "protested that it made no difference at all." They married on 3rd September 1921 and a child, John Hemingway, was born in October, 1923. Ella Winter later recalled: "Hadley had straight hair and small teeth, and appeared somewhat bewildered and out of things. She tried hard to be a good wife, to ski, fish, shoot, and attend prize fights with her husband, run a household on very little money, as well as care for their bouncing baby, Bumbie (John). He was large, blond, good-natured, and loved by everyone."

Hemingway's first collection of stories, In Our Time, was published in 1925. His novel, The Torrents of Spring, appeared the following year. However, it was his next book, The Sun Also Rises (1926), a novel about the aftermath of the First World War, that brought him to the attention of the literary critics. The journalist John Gunther met Hemingway in 1926 at the home of Ford Madox Ford. Gunther told his friend, Helen Hahn: "Put that name down. Ernest Hemingway. He can think straight and he can write English. Heaven knows two such joined accomplishments are rare nowadays."

Other books published during this period was a collection of short stories, Men Without Women (1927) and a A Farewell to Arms (1929), a novel based on his love affair with Agnes von Kurowsky and his experiences of working with the Red Cross. He also wrote a study of bullfighting, Death in the Afternoon (1932), a collection of short-stories, Winner Take Nothing (1933) and an account of big-game hunting, The Green Hills of Africa (1935).

Hemingway reported on the Spanish Civil War, where he advocated international support for the Popular Front Government. In February 1937 Hemingway went to Spain and reported on the war in the Madrid area. He spent most of his time with the International Brigades. Hemingway also helped the Dutch film director Joris Ivens make The Spanish Earth.

Hemingway spent a lot of time with Herbert Matthews in Spain. Alvah Bessie met them at Ebro: "One was tall, thin, dressed in brown corduroy, wearing horn-shelled glasses. He had a long, ascetic face, firm lips, a gloomy look about him. The other was taller, heavy, red-faced, one of the largest men you will ever see; he wore steel-rimmed glasses and a bushy mustache. These were Herbert Matthews of The New York Times and Ernest Hemingway, and they were just as relieved to see us as we were to see them."

Hemingway returned briefly to the United States where he met President Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss the war. He also made speeches in an attempt to raise money for the Republican Army. In March 1938 Hemingway returned to Spain and toured the areas still under the control of the Popular Front Government. He also wrote the play The Fifth Column, which promoted the Republican cause.

After the war Hemingway wrote the novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). The book, which deals with the Republican partisans in the Sierra de Guadarrama, sold over 270,000 copies in its first year. A former member of the Abraham Lincoln Battalion, the writer Alvah Bessie, later complained about the book: "His (Hemingway) dedication to the cause of the Spanish Republic was never questioned, even though the VALB men attacked his novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, as a piece of romantic nonsense when it was not slanderous of many Spanish leaders we all revered, and scarcely representative of what the war was all about."

Hemingway, who married Martha Gellhorn in 1940, worked as a war correspondent during the Second World War. After the war Hemingway moved to Cuba where he wrote The Old Man and the Sea (1952), a novel that won the Pulitzer Prize. Two years later Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for literature.

Ernest Hemingway, depressed by failing artistic and physical powers, committed suicide on 2nd July, 1961. According to his friend, Alvah Bessie: "Ernest Hemingway committed suicide on 2 July 1961. He had apparently felt that he was through - both as a writer and a man." A Moveable Feast, a memoir of his years in Paris after the First World War, and two novels, Islands in the Stream and The Garden of Eden, were published after his death.

One becomes so accustomed to all the dead being men that the sight of a dead woman is quite shocking. We found and carried to an improvised mortuary a good number of these and I must admit, frankly, the shock it was to find that those dead were women rather than men.

There was a flash, as when a blast-furnace door is swung open, and a roar that started white and went red. I tried to move but I could not move.

All civil wars are naturally long. It takes months, sometimes years, to create a war organisation of the front and the rear and to turn thousands of ardent civilians into soldiers. And this transformation can only take place by their going through the living experience of battle. If you neglect this fundamental rule you risk getting a false idea of the character of the Spanish civil war.

A great number of American newspapers, admittedly in good faith, not very long ago were giving their readers the impression that the Government was losing the war owing to its military inferiority at the outbreak of the conflict. The error of these American newspapers was to mistake the character of the civil war, and not to deduce from it the logical conclusions of the history of the American Civil War.

The Spanish military situation, following the encouraging days of March, has consistently improved. A new regular army is taking shape which is a model of discipline and courage and which is secretly developing new cadres in the military academy and schools. I sincerely believe that this new army, born of the struggle, will shortly be the admiration of all Europe, despite the fact that hardly two years ago the Spanish army was considered an agglomeration of individuals resembling actors in a comic opera.

As a war correspondent I must say that in few countries does a journalist find his task facilitated to such a degree as in Republican Spain, where a journalist can really tell the truth and where the censorship helps him in his work, rather than impeding him. While the authorities in the rebel zone do not permit journalists to enter conquered cities until days after, in Republican Spain journalists are asked to be eye-witnesses of events.

At Ebro... the country was so mountainous it looked as though a few machine-guns could have held off a million men. We came back down, went up side roads, crossroads, through small towns, and on a hillside near Rasquera we found three of our men: George Watt and John Gates (then adjutant Brigade Commissar), Joe Hecht. They were lying on the ground wrapped in blankets; under the blankets they were naked. They told us they had swum the Ebro early that morning; that other men had swum and drowned; that they did not know anything of Merriman or Doran, thought they had been captured. They had been to Gandesa, had been cut off there, had fought their way out, travelled at night, been sniped at by artillery. You could see they were reluctant to talk, and so we just sat down with them. Joe looked dead.

Below us there were hundreds of men from the British, the Canadian Battalions; a food truck had come up, and they were being fed. A new Matford roadster drove around the hill and stopped near us, and two men got out we recognized. One was tall, thin, dressed in brown corduroy, wearing horn-shelled glasses. These were Herbert Matthews of The New York Times and Ernest Hemingway, and they were just as relieved to see us as we were to see them. We introducd ourselves and they asked questions. They had cigarettes; they gave us Lucky Strikes and Chesterfields. Matthews seemed to be bitter; permanently so.

Hemingway was eager as a child, and I smiled remembering the first time I had seen him, at a Writers' Congress in New York. He was making his maiden public speech, and when it didn't read right, he got mad at it, repeating the sentences he had fumbled, with exceptional vehemence. Now he was like a big kid, and you liked him. He asked questions like a kid: "What then? What happened then? And what did you do? And what did he say? And then what did you do?" Matthews said nothing, but he took notes on a folded sheet of paper. "What's your name?" said Hemingway; I told him. "Oh," he said, "I'm awful glad to see you; I've read your stuff." I knew he was glad to see me; it made me feel good, and I felt sorry about the times I had lambasted him in print; I hoped he had forgotten them, or never read them. "Here," he said, reaching in his pocket. "I've got more." He handed me a full pack of Lucky Strikes.

A writer's problem does not change. He himself changes, but his problem remains the same. It is always how to write truly and having found what is true, to project it in such a way that it becomes part of the experience of the person who reads it. Really good writers are always rewarded under almost any existing system of government that they can tolerate. There is only one form of government that cannot produce good writers, and that system is fascism. For fascism is a lie told by bullies. A writer who will not lie cannot live and work under fascism.

Hemingway was here for a few days - but once you meet him you're not likely to forget him. The day he came I had been slightly sickish, but Ed came up and got me up out of bed to meet him. When I came into the room where he was he was seated at a table and I wasn't prepared for the towering giant he is. I almost got on my toes to reach his outstretched hand - I didn't need to, but that was my first reaction. He's terrific - not only tall but big - in head, body, hands. "Hello", he said - looked at me and then at Ed and said "You're sure you two aren't brother and sister?" which meant - "what a pair of light-haired, pale, skinny kids!" He told us another time when we were driving back to the hotel from somewhere of his correspondence with Freddy Keller - how he told Freddy he's got good stuff, but he must study - must educate himself and above all study Marx. That was what he had done all winter in Key West, he told us - otherwise, he said, you're a sucker - you don't know a thing until you study Marx. All of this said in short jerky sentences - with no attempt at punctuation. Before he left he gave us the remainder of his provisions - not in a gesture, just gave them to us because he knew we needed them and because he wanted to give them to us. I'm still a little awed by the size of him - he's really an awfully big guy!

The dead sleep cold in Spain tonight. Snow blows through the olive groves, sifting against the tree roots. Snow drifts over the mounds with small headboards. For our dead are a part of the earth of Spain now and the earth of Spain can never die. Each winter it will seem to die and each spring it will come alive again. Our dead will live with it forever.

Over 40,000 volunteers from 52 countries flocked to Spain between 1936 and 1939 to take part in the historic struggle between democracy and fascism known as the Spanish Civil War.

Five brigades of international volunteers fought on behalf of the democratically elected Republican (or Loyalist) government. Most of the North American volunteers served in the unit known as the 15th brigade, which included the Abraham Lincoln battalion, the George Washington battalion and the (largely Canadian) Mackenzie-Papineau battalion. All told, about 2,800 Americans, 1,250 Canadians and 800 Cubans served in the International Brigades. Over 80 of the U.S. volunteers were African-American. In fact, the Lincoln Battalion was headed by Oliver Law, an African-American from Chicago, until he died in battle.

It was a bright April day and the wind was blowing wildly so that each mule that came up the gap raised a cloud of dust, and the two men at the ends of a stretcher each raised a cloud of dust that blew together and made one, and below, across the flat, long streams of dust moved out from the ambulances and blew away in the wind.

I felt quite sure I was not going to be killed on that day now, since we had done our work well in the morning, and twice during the early part of the attack we should have been killed and were not; and this had given me confidence. The first time had been when we had gone up with the tanks and picked a place from which to film the attack. Later I had a sudden distrust for the place and we had moved the cameras about two hundred yards to the left. Just before leaving, I had marked the place in quite the oldest way there is of marking a place, and within ten minutes a six-inch shell had lit on the exact place where I had been and there was no trace of any human being ever having been there. Instead, there was a large and clearly blasted hole in the earth.

Then, two hours later, a Polish officer, recently detached from the battalion and attached to the staff, had offered to show us the positions the Poles had just captured and, coming from under the lee of a fold of hill, we had walked into machine-gun fire that we had to crawl out from under with our chins tight to the ground and dust in our noses, and at the same time made the sad discovery that the Poles had captured no positions at all that day but were a little further back than the place they had started from. And now, lying in the shelter of the trench, I was wet with sweat, hungry and thirsty and hollow inside from the now-finished danger of the attack.

Ernest Hemingway committed suicide on 2 July 1961. He had apparently felt that he was through - both as a writer and a man. His dedication to the cause of the Spanish Republic was never questioned, even though the VALB men attacked his novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, as a piece of romantic nonsense when it was not slanderous of many Spanish leaders we all revered, and scarcely representative of what the war was all about.

© John Simkin, April 2013

Ernest Hemingway's Unbelievable Real-Life Story

Though Ernest Hemingway was an immensely talented author, he was also an icon of 20th-century bullishness and masculinity, a surprisingly sensitive (if tempestuous) soul, and one of the most beautiful, awful, and intriguing figures in literary history.

In life, he was a reporter, a soldier, and quite a drinker, who would have loved admiration like this even if he despised the bombastic, flowery language we're using. Hemingway's life wasn't the longest, but it was filled with drama, driven by ambition, and streaked with blood. Few can write quite like he could. And few have managed to live like he did, either.

A Brief History Of The Ernest Hemingway House In Key West

It often seems as though you could travel anywhere in the world and still find a bibliophile who has read one or several of Ernest Hemingway’s novels or short stories. Having been both an ambulance driver and a war correspondent in Italy during the First World War, Hemingway witnessed a devastating loss of life that would prompt him to write a semi-autobiographical novel, Farewell To Arms. After the war, Hemingway was convinced by a friend to cross the Atlantic and head to Key West, Florida. After a brief yet influential stay in Havana, Cuba, Ernest and his wife Pauline wound up in Key West in 1928, where he would finish writing his timeless classic. Ernest and Pauline Hemingway fell in love with the Florida Keys, and the rest, as they say, is history. Here, a brief history of the famous Hemingway House.

The house was actually a gift to the newlywed couple from Pauline’s rich uncle, Gus, who purchased the estate in 1931. The home was in disrepair when the Hemingways took ownership, but both Ernest and Pauline could see beyond the rubble and ruin and appreciated the grand architecture and stateliness of the home. Constructed from native rock, the house was built in the Spanish Colonial style in 1851. The massive restoration and remodeling they undertook in the early 1930s turned the home into the National Historical Landmark that thousands of tourists visit and enjoy today.

Hemingway lived in this house from 1931 to 1939, years during which he wrote some of his greatest novels as well as short stories and poems. Among the most famous works that Hemingway completed in the Key West estate include were Death in The Afternoon, The Green Hills of Africa, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, and To Have and Have Not.

One of the most intriguing features of the Hemingway estate is its pool. Not an inexpensive project, its construction cost a whopping $20,000 (roughly equivalent to $340,000 today). At the time, it was the first in-ground pool to be built in Key West and was the only pool of its kind within a 100-mile radius.

There is certainly an element of vintage appeal throughout the house. The paintings, chandeliers, and other architectural details, which have been immaculately preserved over the years, foster a sense that time has magically stood still at the Hemingway house.

Visitors often revel in the small details of the old house, whose best features are often not obvious and require some close attention in order to enjoy their true antiquated beauty. Hemingway was in fact an avid collector of furniture from Spain from the 17th and 18th centuries, and his 18th-century Walnut Secretary, complete with hidden compartments, remains one of the home’s most popular displays.

Finally, a history of the Hemingway house isn’t complete without mentioning the cats. The Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum is home to approximately 40-50 polydactyl cats, most of whose ancestry can be traced back to Snow White, the cat that Ernest Hemingway was given by a ship’s captain at some point during his stay on the island. The cats have provided amusement for the visitors of the Hemingway house for decades. Cats with extra toes.. isn’t that reason enough to visit?!

Ernest Hemingway - History

Obituaries for Gregory Hemingway

Gregory Hemingway, Ernest Hemingway's youngest son, dies in jail cell at 69

ASSOCIATED PRESS October 4, 2001

MIAMI - Novelist Ernest Hemingway's troubled youngest son died of natural causes in a jail cell. He was 69.

Gregory Hemingway, a former doctor also known as Gloria Hemingway, was found dead at 5:45 a.m. Monday, said Janelle Hall, a spokeswoman for the county corrections department. He had been arrested last week, at least his third arrest in the county.

He often dressed as a woman, and Hall said jail officials had classified him as a woman and believe he had undergone a sex change operation. He died in the women's section of the jail.

Police said family members, whose names they did not make public, confirmed the deceased was Ernest Hemingway's son.

The elder Hemingway killed himself in 1961. A book Gregory Hemingway wrote about his father, "Papa: A Personal Memoir," was published in 1976. It had a preface by Norman Mailer.

In 1997, Hemingway joined with his brothers, Jack and Patrick, in battling the organizers of the sometimes rowdy Hemingway Days celebration in Key West. They said they wanted a more dignified gathering and royalty payments. The celebration was canceled but then revived. Jack Hemingway, who also wrote a memoir of his father, died last year.

Gregory Hemingway's daughter is Lorian Hemingway, author of such books as "Walk on Water: A Memoir."

But alcohol and other problems stalked his life.

"My mother suffered severe brain damage as a result of a car accident directly related to her addiction," Lorian Hemingway has written. "My father lost his medical license for the same reason." Gregory Hemingway had been arrested last week on Key Biscayne, charged with indecent exposure and resisting arrest without violence after a park ranger reported a pedestrian with no clothes on.

He appeared to be drunk or otherwise impaired, said the arresting officer, Nelia Real. "He had no shoes and he had a dress and high heels in his hands," Real said.

"I feel really bad that that happened. He was a very nice guy."

Homicide detectives ruled the death was due to natural causes. The autopsy report listed hypertension and cardiovascular disease, officials said according to Miami-Dade police spokesman Juan DelCastillo. Miami-Dade court records show that he had been arrested in 1996 on an aggravated assault charge and in 1995 on a charge of battery on an officer. The outcome of those cases was not immediately available.

Hemingway, son of the author and his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer, was born in Kansas City, Mo., on Nov. 12, 1931.

In 1999, Hemingway spoke at the dedication of the Hemingway-Pfeiffer museum in Piggott, Ark., in what had been the Pfeiffer family home. He remarked that his father "is quite fortunate in having just about every place he ever lived in immortalized."

Ernest Hemingway's Son Gregory Dies
By Terry Spencer
Associated Press Writer

Thursday, Oct. 4, 2001 5:27 p.m. EDT

MIAMI -- Gregory Hemingway, the youngest son of macho novelist Ernest Hemingway, died a transsexual by the name of Gloria in a cell at a women's jail, authorities said. He was 69.

Hemingway - a former doctor who wrote a well-received book about his father, "Papa: A Personal Memoir" - was found dead Monday of what the medical examiner's office said was high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.

He had been arrested last week, at least his third arrest in the county. He was in jail awaiting a court appearance on charges of indecent exposure and resisting arrest without violence.

Janelle Hall, a spokeswoman for the county corrections department, said Hemingway had undergone a sex-change operation. Hall said she did not know when.
Key Biscayne police had arrested Hemingway at a park on Sept. 25 afer finding him putting on his underwear. He was carrying a dress and high-heeled shoes. He appeared intoxicated or mentally impaired, officer Nelia Real said.

"He said his name was Gloria," Real said. "He looked like a man, but his nails were painted and he was wearing jewelry and makeup. . He was very nice to me. At times he was very coherent, but other times he didn't make any sense."

The son of the author and his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer, was born in Kansas City, Mo., and graduated from the University of Miami Medical School. The elder Hemingway committed suicide in 1961.

In Gregory Hemingway's 1976 book, which had a preface by Norman Mailer, the novelist's son wrote: "I never got over a sense of responsibility for my father's death. And the recollection of it sometimes made me act in strange ways."

Hemingway's Florida medical license was revoked in 1988 after Montana authorities would not renew his license to practice in that state. His daughter, Lorian Hemingway, wrote a 1992 memoir, "Walk on Water," in which she said her father lost his medical license because of an addiction.

Hemingway was married four times. His last marriage, in 1992, ended in divorce in 1995.

Hemingway, whose last known address was in Miami's Coconut Grove, had been arrested at least three times in the mid-1990s on charges including battery on a police officer and aggravated assault. The outcome of those cases was not immediately available.

In 1997, Hemingway joined with his brothers, Jack and Patrick, in battling the organizers of the sometimes rowdy Hemingway Days celebration in Key West. They said they wanted a more dignified gathering and royalty payments. The celebration was canceled but then revived. Jack Hemingway, who also wrote a memoir of his father, died last year.

© Copyright 2001 The Associated Press

Friday October 5 8:22 AM ET

Gregory Hemingway, Son of Writer, Dies in Miami
By Angus MacSwan

MIAMI (Reuters) - Gregory Hemingway, whose troubled relationship with his late father, writer Ernest Hemingway, led him to a tormented life of drink and depression, has died in Miami, officials said on Thursday.

It was another sad chapter in the story of the literary lion's family.

Hemingway, 69, died of natural causes in a Miami jail after being arrested for indecent exposure.

He was picked up last Wednesday after walking naked down the street in Key Biscayne, a Miami island community, carrying a pair of black high heels and wearing jewelry, police said.

``He had a difficult life. It's not easy to be the son of a great man,'' Scott Donaldson, president of the Hemingway Society, told Reuters.

Gregory, younger brother to Jack and Patrick, struggled to cope with the burden. A transvestite who later had a sex-change operation, he suffered bouts of drinking, depression and drifting, according to acquaintances.

``I don't know how it was done, the destruction,'' he said in a 1987 interview with the Washington Post. ``What is it about a loving, dominating, basically well-intentioned father that makes you end up going nuts?''

At the time of his death, he lived in the Coconut Grove district where he was well-known to its Bohemian crowd. He sometimes went by the name of Gloria and wore women's clothes.

Last Wednesday, he was reported walking naked through Key Biscayne. When an officer arrived, he was sitting on a curb trying to put on a flowered thong, the police report said.

He had a hospital gown wrapped around his shoulder but was exposing a breast and his genitals, it said. When the officer tried to arrest him, he screamed and refused to be handcuffed.

He gave the name Greg Hemingway, then later changed it to Gloria, the report added.

Taken to the Miami-Dade Women's Detention Center, he was found dead in his cell early on Monday, spokeswoman Janelle Hall said. The cause of death was hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

He had been due to appear in court later that day on charges of indecent exposure and resisting arrest. He was booked into the women's jail because he had a sex-change operation, Hall added.

Strange and tragic deaths have haunted the Hemingway family.

Ernest, the Nobel Prize-winning author who was almost as famous for his adventurous life as for works like ``The Old Man and the Sea'' and ``The Sun Also Rises,'' shot himself in 1961. Ernest's father, brother and sister also committed suicide.

Actress and model Margaux Hemingway, Jack's daughter, was found dead in Santa Monica in 1996 at the age of 41 after battles with alcohol, drugs and depression.

Gregory was born in Kansas City in 1931. His mother was Hemingway's second wife Pauline. He lived his early years in Key West.

``In many ways he was the most talented as a boy -- he was a wonderful shooter. He won pigeon-shooting competitions down in Cuba,'' Donaldson said.

In the Post interview, Hemingway spoke about the pressures of trying to live up to the expectations of his macho father. He once killed 18 elephants on a safari in Africa.

`Yes, I had the most talent. I was the brightest, I could do so many of the things he loved most,'' he said. He also said his father knew about his cross-dressing.

``I've spent hundreds of thousands of dollars trying not to be a transvestite. It's a combination of things -- first you've got this father who's super-masculine but who's somehow protesting it all the time. He's worried to death about it.''

Known to the family as Gigi, he attended the University of Miami medical school. He later practiced medicine, including a period as a country physician in Montana, but lost his license as he wrestled with alcohol and his personal demons.

He said he had received electric shock treatment many times and had several nervous breakdowns. He sometimes drifted, living in cars, motels or friends' houses.
But family and acquaintances remembered him as a man who could be charming, kind and brilliant on his good days.

``I loved him and he was a good man,'' said his daughter Lorian Hemingway from her home in Seattle.

``He was a man of great compassion and self-searching, and he bore the necessary cross of being human. I believe the thing he wanted most of all was to please others and to be loved,'' said Lorian, whose book ``Walk on Water'' was nominated for the 1999 Pulitzer Prize.

``Everything in his life was troubled. He was troubled by his relationship with his father, with his mother,'' said one acquaintance. ``I would say he was tormented.''

He married four times, the last time in Key West in 1992 in a ceremony in the old Hemingway house. That marriage ended in divorce in 1995, according to the Miami Herald. He is believed to have had six children.

In letters to his father, Gregory called him an ``ailing alcoholic'' and derided ``The Old Man and the Sea'' as ''sentimental slop.''

In Ernest's book ``Islands in the Stream,'' novelist Thomas Hudson's son Andy -- ``the meanest'' -- is based on Gregory.

Gregory wrote about their relationship in a book ``Papa: A Personal Memoir,'' published in 1976, which opened: ``I never got over the sense of responsibility for my father's death and the recollection of it sometimes made me act in strange ways.''

But he also spoke of the good times, like playing war games in the yard of the Key West house. THE SON ALSO FALLS From elephant hunter to bejeweled exhibitionist, the tortured life of Gregory Hemingway.

By Nara Schoenberg CHICAGO TRIBUNE

ON HIS last night as a free man, Ernest Hemingway's youngest son slipped on a demure black cocktail dress and made his way to a small private party in the upscale Miami enclave of Coconut Grove.

He introduced himself to friends as "Vanessa" and spent much of the evening in the kitchen, chatting with millionaires in country club attire. Guests say he didn't get drunk. He seemed to be in good spirits.

"The odd thing about it was, he looked happy," says writer Peter Myers, who had never seen his old friend dressed as a woman before.

"I'd say he looked about 20 years younger. He looked comfortable." But things took a rapid turn for the worse, as things often did in the life of Gregory Hemingway, a doctor who had lost his medical license, a writer who hadn't published a book in 20 years, a husband who had been divorced from four wives.

Less than 24 hours after he successfully introduced his female identity to some of his oldest and most respectable Florida friends, he resurfaced in the nearby community of Key Biscayne.

Perhaps he wanted to celebrate his triumph at a local bar, a friend says. Maybe he intended to take a walk on the beach.

What is clear is that at about 4 p.m. the next day, Sept. 25, the burly transsexual was seen parading down a main Key Biscayne thoroughfare, naked, with a dress and heels in his hand. Taken into custody by an officer who described him as "very nice" and perhaps mentally unstable, he was charged with indecent exposure and resisting arrest without violence.

After a medical exam showed he had undergone a sex change, he was jailed - on a mere $1,000 bail - at the Miami-Dade Women's Detention Center.

On Oct. 1, his sixth day in jail, Hemingway, who suffered from high blood pressure and heart disease, rose early for a court appearance, began to dress and suddenly collapsed in his underwear onto the concrete floor.

The third son of the 20th century's most resolutely macho literary figure had died, at age 69, in a women's jail.

Gregory Hemingway's journey from elephant hunter to bejeweled exhibitionist, from the boy who appeared to have everything to the prisoner in cell 3-C2, was long and winding, marked by many detours and numerous contradictions.

On this much, however, friends and family agree: He suffered from manic depression, a form of mental illness. Even in a family tormented by chemical imbalance - Gregory's father, paternal grandfather, uncle, aunt and niece all committed suicide - the man who sometimes called himself Gloria was notably tormented.

"He had hundreds of shock treatments, and he kind of got to like them," says Jeffrey Meyers, who wrote one of several major biographies of Ernest Hemingway. "It was like an addiction. Most people are terrified of shock treatments. If you read Sylvia Plath's 'The Bell Jar,' it's not something you would willingly do."

There are many who remember Gregory Hemingway as unfailingly gentle and generous, but when he was in the manic - or euphoric - stage of his disease he could be reckless, even violent. He had a string of arrests in Florida and Montana, where he spent his winters, including one in which he threatened to expose himself and kicked a police officer in the groin.

Other factors in Hemingway's decline, his associates say, may have included a chaotic childhood, a complex relationship with his mother and a sometimes overwhelming desire for acknowledgment from his famous father.

And then there were the dresses.

At the heart of Hemingway's tangled tale was a lifelong flirtation with femininity that enraged Ernest, that epitome of swaggering American machismo, and led to a series of father-son confrontations that scarred Gregory as a boy and haunted him as an adult.

The battles date back to at least the early 1940s, when, according to Gregory's friend, the poet Donald Junkins, Ernest walked in on Gregory - then about 10 - while his athletic young son, the skeet shooter with the mischievous grin, was trying on his stepmother Martha Gellhorn's dress and nylons. Ernest "went berserk," Junkins says.

Father and son appear to have remained close for several years after that, with Ernest even tutoring the boy he called Gig for a career as a writer. But by the time Gregory was 19, he and Ernest were locked in bloody psychological warfare over the lure of silk and taffeta.

It was a battle that would span much of the son's life and continue for decades after the father's death.

Ernest Hemingway was a man who got what he wanted: the biggest fish, the prettiest girl, the Nobel Prize. And in 1931, the man they called "Papa" wanted a daughter.

The birth of a third son, Gregory Hancock Hemingway, on Nov. 12, was an added complication in an already shaky marriage.

"My father had wanted a daughter badly," Greg wrote in his 1976 book, "Papa, a Personal Memoir." "So to my mother, my birth meant that she, or perhaps I, had blown this last chance to make her lovable egomaniac happy." His mother, Pauline Pfeiffer, the second of Hemingway's four wives, left much of Greg's early upbringing to a "'verness" named Ada, who, according to Greg, tended to respond to even minor misbehavior by screaming, packing her bags, and fleeing down the stairs. His father was a warmer figure, and although he was frequently absent - reporting, writing and romancing his next wife - Greg adored him.

Strong, stocky and keenly intelligent, the dark-eyed boy, who fed ducks tenderly and shot them accurately, in many ways resembled his father, who once said Greg "has the biggest dark side in the family, except me." Father and son shared a similar steely determination, and by age 11, Greg was showing signs of the same athletic gifts.

That was when Ernest entered his son in the Cuban pigeon-shooting championship. Greg defeated more than 140 contestants, including some of the best wing shots in the world, to tie for top honors. There were articles about him in the Havana newspapers. His father was thrilled. But if there was triumph, there was also tumult.

Ernest ran through four wives by the time Greg was 15. He drank heavily and allowed his young son to do the same. Greg recalls in his memoir having his father cheerfully prescribe him a Bloody Mary - the boy was maybe 12 - as a cure for a hangover.

The conflict over cross-dressing had worsened by 1951, when, according to the standard account of Hemingway family history, Greg, then 19, got in trouble over his use of a mind-altering drug.

THE incident prompted Ernest to lash out viciously at Greg's mother, Pauline, in a bitter phone call. The story might have ended there, but unbeknown to anyone, Pauline had a rare tumor of the adrenal gland that can cause a deadly surge of adrenaline in times of stress. Within hours of the phone call with Ernest, she had died of shock on a hospital operating table.

Ernest blamed his son for Pauline's death, and Greg, who was deeply disturbed by the accusation, never saw his father alive again.

That basic chronology is not in dispute, but the biographer, Meyers, now acknowledges that there was an element missing. It wasn't Greg's drug or alcohol use that caused Ernest to berate Pauline shortly before she died, he told the Tribune. "I had to cover that over a little bit in my book, because I was very close to the family and I really couldn't wound them . " Meyers says. "But Ernest knew about Gregory's cross-dressing way back in '51, and that was the cause of the dispute not, I think I called it, drug-taking or drinking." After his mother's death, Greg, apparently depressed, interrupted his pre-med studies and retreated to Africa, where he drank too much and shot elephants - at one point 18 in a single month.

It wasn't until nearly a decade later, in 1960, that he felt strong enough to resume his medical studies and respond to Ernest's charges. He wrote his father a bitter letter, detailing the medical facts of his mother's death and blaming Ernest for the tragedy.

Within months, Ernest showed serious signs of mental illness. The next year, he would kill himself, and once again Greg would wrestle with guilt over the death of a parent.

"I never got over a sense of responsibility for my father's death," he wrote in his memoir, "and the recollection of it sometimes made me act in strange ways."

If Greg was devastated by the death of his father, he also confessed to a profound sense of relief. As the body was lowered into the ground, he reflected that never again would he disappoint the old man.

What followed was perhaps the most productive period of Greg's life. He graduated from the University of Miami School of Medicine in 1964, and married what was by now his third wife, Valery Danby- Smith, the mother of three of his eight children. Living in New York and Montana, he practiced medicine, the profession of his paternal grandfather.

"He was a physician at heart," says his eldest daughter, Lorian, 49, a writer. "The passion was there." In 1976, he published his book about life with his father. Compassionate but unflinching, it opened with an admiring introduction by Norman Mailer and is still highly regarded by Hemingway scholars.

Precisely when Greg's demons caught up with him is unclear, but by the early 1980s, the storm clouds were gathering. Meyers, who spent a week with Greg and Valery while researching his book on Ernest in 1983, recalls that Greg's marriage was breaking up and he was acting in peculiar, and sometimes reckless, ways.

"He was very good-looking. He was very smart. I mean, you could have some interesting talks with him. He was also, always, very crazy," Meyers says.

By the early 1990s, Greg's finances were so precarious - he was routinely spending every dime of the checks he received monthly from the family estate - he at one point lived in his beat-up Volkswagen. Apparently considering a sex change, he had gone so far as to have a single breast implant, leaving the other side of his chest flat.

He and Valery had been divorced, and his medical license had been suspended in both Montana and Florida - the reason is not known because officials in Montana, where the licensing problems originated, say they have lost the records.

But when he and Junkins, a Hemingway scholar and retired University of Massachusetts English professor, began running into each other socially in Miami in 1991, it wasn't his present problems that Greg wanted to talk about. It was his past.

He told Junkins, who would later serve as best man at Greg's fourth wedding, about the fit Ernest threw when he caught Greg cross-dressing as a boy.

"Gregory was 60 years old, and this is the first thing he tells me," Junkins says. "He says he never got over it: the raging wrath of his father." Thirty years after his death, Ernest Hemingway was back in his son's life.

By 1995, the final showdown between father and son was well under way, with Greg rejecting not only his father's hyper-masculine code of conduct, but masculinity itself, in an act that some consider courageous and others depict as the final, desperate act of an unbalanced mind.

For the most part, Hemingway lived as a man after his sex change. He had the same deep voice, the same muscular build. Rather than adding a second breast implant, he had the first removed at some point in the 1990s.

He stayed with his fourth wife, Ida Mae Galliher, a fine-featured blonde who drove a Mercedes convertible and was much admired by Coconut Grove's graying jet-setters. Florida records show the couple divorced in 1995, after about two years of marriage, but friends say they continued to live together in Ida's gated coral-rock cottage.

"He was a very heterosexual guy, I guarantee it," Junkins says. "He and Ida weren't putting polish on each other's nails." Ida, who declined to be interviewed for this article, told the Miami Herald shortly after Greg's death that she and Greg remarried in Washington state in 1997.

Hemingway mostly went by the name Greg or Gregory in the Grove, where he frequented the Taurus Ale House, a neighborhood bar and restaurant, in men's attire.

"He'd hang out in the afternoon, drink beer with us and talk," recalls Taurus regular Charley Brown, 62, a writer. "And he was just one of the guys." Rumors about Greg's personal life did flourish, and occasionally he would be spotted cross-dressing. But in resolutely artsy, often bizarre Coconut Grove, Greg Hemingway wasn't the most unusual guy in the bar.

"Not by a long shot," Brown says.

Hemingway's apparent reluctance to let go of his male identity could be explained by many factors, among them the potential for embarrassment. But it does seem a remarkable coincidence that, in getting a sex change, Greg chose perhaps the one path most likely to pain and embarrass his father - and then went on living his life much as before.

It's also interesting to note that when he did assert his femininity, he sometimes seemed more interested in creating a spectacle than completing a process of sincere self-transformation.

Perhaps the most dramatic example of that occurred in 1995, when Hemingway, then 64, boarded a Miami bus, made a series of sexual advances toward the male driver and threatened to break his jaw.

When police arrived, Hemingway was standing outside an Amoco station, dressed in women's clothing and talking incoherently. Pulling up his skirt, he said to one of the officers, "Let me show you that I'm a woman." The police officer reminded him he was in public and told him to put down his skirt. Hemingway responded by kicking the cop in the groin. It took three police officers to handcuff Hemingway, who pleaded guilty to a felony charge of battery on a police officer, but was never convicted.

The Miami-Dade Women's Detention Center is a long way from the Miami of snow-white sailboats and gated Spanish mansions where Greg Hemingway celebrated the running of the bulls at the annual Pamplona Party in Coconut Grove.

A battered pay phone stands outside the center, a bland, four-story building framed by scrub grass, a highway overpass and a series of rusty pipes enclosed in a chain-link fence.

Inside, the faint smell of disinfectant lingers in a pale green lobby with peach trim. A row of broad- shouldered, unsmiling women play volleyball in a narrow courtyard.

Hemingway, who was examined by a corrections medical staff, was classified as female and assigned here "basically because of his genital organs," according to Janelle Hall, a spokeswoman for the Miami-Dade corrections department. "It would have been an injustice to hold him in a male facility," she says.

Hemingway, who died of heart disease and high blood pressure on Oct. 1, spent the last days of his life on the third floor, in a private cell used for high- profile inmates. The room is 10 feet by 10 feet, with a steel cot and two narrow windows.

Staff recall him as "a very big, robust, very learned sort of person," Hall says. "He did not give us any problems." At the jail, his death was just another in the long series of hard-luck tales common to the place. To the outside world - his obituary, which referred to his sex change and various psychological problems, ran in publications across the country - it may have seemed a scandal and sensation.

But in Coconut Grove, where Hemingway was well known and well liked, it was a tragedy, a tragedy that some say could have been prevented.

Standing outside the house where Ida Hemingway still lives, handyman Terry Fox speaks of his friend Greg in the present tense as he fixes the automatic gate Greg smashed with his car shortly before his death.

"I don't think they should do that to him, ya know?" he says of Hemingway's incarceration. "We're real upset about that. I mean, the average burglar gets out the next day."

Lorian Hemingway goes further, claiming that her father didn't receive vital medication while in jail.

"I do not know to whom to assign blame," she says, "But I think his having been incarcerated for five days on a bail of a mere $1,000 and having his life end because he could not have the medication he needed is a criminal act, outright." Ida Hemingway told the Miami Herald that she called the jail repeatedly, but that she didn't bail Greg out because she thought he needed help.

Hall declined to comment on whether Hemingway received his high blood pressure medication in jail, citing inmate confidentiality. Larry Cameron, director of operations for the Miami-Dade Medical Examiner Department, declined to comment on medical details, saying Ida Hemingway had requested that the family's privacy be respected.

Greg Hemingway apparently did not contact his friends, several of whom said they would have been more than happy to supply the $100, or 10 percent, required to secure his release on bond.

Guests cried openly at Greg's small, private memorial service in Coconut Grove. Hemingway's children spoke of the good times.

"These kids adored him. It says a lot about Gregory," Junkins says. "They know everything. Of course they do. You know, he was their father."

Exiting the turn-of-the-century Spanish mission church where the service was held, glancing back at the twin splashes of hot-pink bougainvillea framing the front door, it must have been easy for those who attended to think comforting thoughts about God, nature and the afterlife.

But it's not at all clear that the deceased himself would have taken refuge in such consolation.

If he had proved one thing during his long and torturous battle with his father's shadow, it was that he, too, was a Hemingway: stubborn and self-destructive, but also fierce and uncompromising.

Forty years before, he had considered voicing comforting cliches at his own father's funeral, he wrote in his memoir.

He had envisioned the old man alive, aware and dreaming, a spirit united at last with earth and sky.

But, he wrote, such visions seemed small to him, and their comfort shallow. And his father would have considered such visions absurd.

"Atoms can't dream, Gig," he could hear his father say. "No use deluding yourself, old pal."

Chicago Tribune is a Tribune Co. newspaper.

IT'S SAFE to say there are few families as fascinating as the Hemingways. Here is a brief look at some of the family members and their lives and their problems:

Start, of course, with Ernest. Regarded as one of America's greatest authors, he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Nobel Prize a year later. His adventures included driving a Red Cross ambulance during World War I, covering the Spanish Civil War as a news correspondent and living in Africa, where he went on countless safaris and survived two plane crashes. All pretty macho stuff. But he also was the boy whose mother, Grace, dressed him and his older sister, Marcelline, as twins. Some speculate that was the root of Ernest's attitude toward women - he long resented Grace and refused to attend her funeral, married four times and had countless affairs. He died in 1961, the victim of a self-inflicted shotgun wound, after years of physical and mental problems. He was 61.

Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, Ernest's father, took his own life in 1928. Suffering from diabetes and depression and facing debts, he shot himself to death with a Civil War pistol. He was 57 years old.

Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest's mother, was a former singer and music teacher. She was extremely protective of her first son. As he grew older, he rebelled against her nurturing - and later against her criticism of his work. To friends, he referred to her as "the bitch." She died in 1951 at 79.

Marcelline Hemingway was Ernest's older sister and the sibling to whom he was closest. She maintained a famous correspondence with her brother for many years. Marcelline died in 1963, two years after Ernest. She was 65.

Ursula Hemingway Jepson, Ernest's younger sister, having survived three cancer operations, committed suicide with a drug overdose in 1966. She was 64.

Another sibling, brother Leicester Clarence Hemingway, 67, shot himself to death in 1982 after a series of health problems.

Carol Hemingway Gardner, Ernest's youngest sister, was estranged from her brother after he objected to her choice of fiance and she married the young man anyway. She today is the last surviving Hemingway sibling.

Madelaine Hemingway Miller, nicknamed "Sunny," typed portions of her brother's novel "A Farewell to Arms," and later played the harp with the Memphis Symphony. She died in 1995 at the age of 90.

Jack Hemingway, Ernest's oldest son, had a pretty interesting life in his own right. His godparents were Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas, whom Ernest had befriended in Paris in the '20s his early days were recounted in his father's "A Moveable Feast" he was a decorated World War II veteran who spent six months in a German POW camp and he wrote several books, including one about his father, and three on fishing. He died in 2000 of complications following heart surgery. He was 77.

All of Hemingway's former wives are deceased. Martha Gellhorn, his third wife, died most recently, in February 1998. Gregory's mother, Pauline Pfeiffer Hemingway, died in 1951 at age 56 of an undiagnosed tumor.

Actress/model Margaux Hemingway, 41-year-old daughter of Jack, died of a drug overdose in 1996. Her younger sister, Mariel, continues to appear in films and on TV.

Hemingway's sole surviving child is son Patrick, born in 1928. He continues to promote his father's memory as a member of the advisory board of the Hemingway Foundation of Oak Park.

Date: Mon, 22 Sep 2003
Subject: Another for your gregory/gloria fiasco page
From: Andrea James
To: Lynn Conway Posted on Mon, Sep. 22, 2003
UP FRONT | THE HEMINGWAYS Gender of Hemingway's son at center of feud
Ernest Hemingway's son had a sex change and became Gloria. Now his eight children and his wife are fighting over his estate.
[email protected]

Patrick Hemingway hadn't seen his father in more than a year when the two met at a Missoula, Mont., motel in June 1996.

The son knew things would be different. Still, he didn't know exactly how different, until he saw Gregory Hemingway -- doctor, writer, elephant-slayer and son of Ernest -- perched on a bed in a dirty-blonde wig, a blue dress, pearl necklace and high-heeled pumps. He'd had a sex change.

''It was a little unsettling,'' Patrick recalls. ``I didn't know how to address him.''

The anguish over gender identity that drove Gregory Hemingway to become Gloria Hemingway has outlived him to become a bitter legal battle between Gregory's eight children and Gloria's wife. They are fighting over his estate.

At issue are the types of questions rarely arbitrated in a South Florida courtroom: When he died Oct. 1, 2001, at the Women's Annex of the Miami-Dade County Jail, was Gregory the sex he was born into, or the one into which he changed? And, if Hemingway was, indeed, a woman, could the marriage to another woman be legally valid?

Florida law does not recognize same-sex marriages, which could nullify a will leaving much of Hemingway's estate to Ida Hemingway, whom he married in 1992, divorced in 1995, and then remarried in 1997, after having undergone the sex change. (The ceremony, conducted by a judge, took place in Washington state and Hemingway is identified as Gregory on the marriage certificate.)

These are not small questions. The estate of Gregory Hemingway contains about $7 million.

A 1994 will, submitted for probate on Oct. 30, 2001 by Gregory's children, leaves most of his estate to five of the kids. But another will, submitted eight months later by Ida Hemingway, leaves the bulk of his assets to her. Her attorney claims the will is an expression of Gregory's desire to provide for her, regardless of the validity of the marriage.

At a hearing last month, Miami-Dade Circuit Judge Arthur Rothenberg gave attorneys 45 days to write briefs before he decides whether to accept the later will.

''You may hear argument about this marriage not being a valid marriage,'' Nicholas Cristin, a Miami attorney for Ida Hemingway, said at an April hearing. ``These two people certainly thought they were married.''

Joe Gonzalez, an attorney for some of Gregory's children, argued, however, that both Ida and Gregory Hemingway also thought they were women.

''[Gregory] had female genitalia,'' Gonzalez said. ``So two people with female genitalia married each other. I suspect that, under the law, that's not a valid marriage.''

Rothenberg's decision almost certainly will blaze new trails in an already evolving legal landscape in Florida.

Last February, a senior family court judge in Pinellas County ruled that a transsexual named Michael Kantaras -- who had been born Margo Kantaras -- was legally a man and granted Kantaras custody of an adopted child, and a second child conceived with his wife through donated sperm.

The dispute between Ida Hemingway and Gregory's children is contained in hundreds of pages of court pleadings and sworn statements at the Miami-Dade County Courthouse. The records suggest that underlying the battle of Gregory's estate lies a long-simmering resentment.

Ida and Gregory Hemingway had been married, though the marriage was on rocky terrain, in late September 2001 when Gregory left the couple's Bozeman, Mont., ranch for Miami. On Sept. 26, he was arrested for indecent exposure in Key Biscayne while walking down the road naked, a pair of women's pumps in his hand he died Oct. 1, 2001, of heart failure, found slumped on the floor of the Women's Annex.

An obituary days later in Time magazine eulogized the son of Ernest Hemingway, one of America's most masculine writers, as ``Gloria Hemingway.''

Ida accuses some of the children of abandoning a father they considered unseemly.

The children accuse Ida of exploiting a man who was sick and dependent, persuading him to disinherit his own children -- as his father had done to him.

Ida, who met Hemingway at a party in Coconut Grove celebrating the annual Running of the Bulls in Pamploma, Spain, reserves her most biting comments for Lorian Hemingway, the oldest of Gregory Hemingway's children, and a successful storyteller in her own right. Her 1998 Walk on Water was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and a National Book Award.

In a March 14 deposition, Ida Hemingway called the memoir a ''crummy book'' that sought to exploit her father's ``weaknesses.''

''Her description of him . . . being dirty and greasy-haired and his car [being] full of beer cans -- that is not a nice light to put your father in,'' Ida said.

In her sworn statement, Lorian insists her father, who authored the 1976 bestseller Papa: A Personal Memoir, had sought late in life to make peace with his children.

''Ida would not allow my father to have contact with his children [and] tried to keep him from being in touch with his children and with his friends.'' she said in a sworn statement.

'She kept him from receiving what he needed in jail and said, `let him rot in jail,' '' Lorian said. 'You know, `Let him stay there. Maybe this will teach him a lesson.' ''

Patrick Hemingway, a professional photographer from Vancouver, said in court papers his father, who suffered from bipolar disorder and often was depressed, remained with Ida because he feared he could not take care of himself alone.

''Ida was very abusive to my father, and they argued a lot,'' he wrote. ``He would confide in me that Ida did not love him, and when Ida would come in the room he would change the subject.''

Patrick said he was particularly surprised -- and disappointed -- by the latter will because Ida had assured him in 1996 that Gregory Hemingway did not intend to disinherit his children -- Lorian, Brendan, Vanessa, Sean, Edward, Patrick, John and Maria.

'She said, `I've seen the will. Don't worry, you kids will all be taken care of.' I thought this strange, because I was not worried,'' Patrick said.

© 2003 The Miami Herald and wire service sources. All Rights Reserved.

Date: Mon, 22 Sep 2003
Subject: More on Hemingway
From: Andrea James
To: Lynn Conway

This picture was taken after the supposed “sex change.” More proof that there are a group of people like Anne Lawrence who get modifications to their bodies with no interest in a social role. Many seem to be wealthy (especially “professionals,” i.e. doctors and lawyers) and in midlife crisis.

"Dr. Gregory Hemingway and his wife, Ida, strike a pose as Bonnie and Clyde during the grand opening celebration of the Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum and Educational Center in Piggott, Ark., in this July 4, 1999 file photo. Hemingway, novelist Ernest Hemingway's youngest son, died of natural causes in jail, a newspaper reported. He was 69. Bill Templeton Associated Press Published October 4, 2001
Copyright 2003 Star Tribune. All rights reserved."

Critical Acclaim

Soon, Pauline became pregnant and the couple decided to move back to America. After the birth of their son Patrick Hemingway in 1928, they settled in Key West, Florida, but summered in Wyoming. During this time, Hemingway finished his celebrated World War I novel A Farewell to Arms, securing his lasting place in the literary canon.

When he wasn&apost writing, Hemingway spent much of the 1930s chasing adventure: big-game hunting in Africa, bullfighting in Spain and deep-sea fishing in Florida. While reporting on the Spanish Civil War in 1937, Hemingway met a fellow war correspondent named Martha Gellhorn (soon to become wife number three) and gathered material for his next novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls, which would eventually be nominated for the Pulitzer Prize.

Ernest Hemingway in Wyoming

The Wyoming story of American novelist Ernest Hemingway began when he sought solace, seclusion and beauty near Yellowstone National Park. Its chapters span the entirety of his adult life yet have been accorded only passing significance. In Ernest Hemingway’s life, scenes of hunting, a wedding, miscarriage, injuries and physical degeneration all found Wyoming settings. Friendships grew, he fished with his sons, and he wrote much of his best work here—with great energy, productivity, and vividness.

Italy, World War I and Wyoming dreams

Ernest Hemingway, barely 19, had a lot of time to think during his six months’ hospitalization in Milan. He had been hit in the legs less than three weeks after coming to Italy as a United States Red Cross ambulance driver. In the room next to his was fellow ambulance driver Henry Villard, later to become a U.S. ambassador, who was suffering from jaundice. The two swapped tales about the size of trout they had caught back home and cooked with bacon over a fire. They reminisced about being far from civilization and spending days in a tent when it rained.

Villard described a ranch on the South Fork of the Shoshone River in Wyoming where he had spent the previous summer. “I am going to live out there, Hem,” he declared. Hemingway responded, “Hell, I’m going out there myself someday.”

Hemingway would mourn the loss of his mostly fantasized relationship with his nurse Agnes von Kurowsky.

He would marry and divorce Hadley Richardson and live in France and Spain become a father have an affair with Pauline Pfeiffer, a marriage to her, and a second son before he and his friend and fellow ambulance driver Bill Horne would load into Ernest’s yellow Ford runabout and head west.

“Wine of Wyoming”

Hemingway had already published the novel The Sun Also Rises and the short-story collections In Our Time and Men Without Women when he arrived at the Folly Ranch near Sheridan in July 1928, just a month after the birth of his second son, Patrick.

Hemingway had left the sweltering Midwestern heat for the cool, clear air of the Wyoming mountains. He and Horne arrived in Sheridan and found their way to the Folly Ranch in the Bighorn Range. The ranch log includes an entry in which a Dr. Spaulding was summoned in the middle of the night to treat Hemingway’s “twitching insomnia,” likely restless legs syndrome.

That summer, at age 29, he wrote to a friend from the ranch that he was “lonely as a bastard,” was drinking and eating too much, and that his whole life seemed pointless. He hoped to finish A Farewell to Arms , set in Italy during World War I, before Pauline arrived. Pauline’s recent difficulty giving birth to their son, Patrick,was the model for Catherine’s death during childbirth in A Farewell to Arms . Bothered by the noise and the tourists at the Folly Ranch, Hemingway moved to the Sheridan Inn, built in 1893 by the Burlington Railroad, then to the Donnelly Ranch and eventually to the Spear Family Ranch, called Spear-O-Wigwam. In August, Pauline joined him, having left infant Patrick to be cared for by her parents and sister.

After Pauline arrived, the two ate and drank wine in Sheridan with the Moncini family, immigrants from France. This was during Prohibition, making the Moncinis bootleggers with an arrest record. Hemingway renamed them the Fontans in his short story “Wine of Wyoming.” Despite the idyllic setting and the narrator’s happy associations with Europe, the story reveals glimpses of trauma and the restlessness of Hemingway’s psyche. Some scholars have centered on Prohibition and the political situation to which the story alludes. But Hemingway had been greatly affected by Gertrude Stein and her coterie of artists and writers in Paris after the war.

What came of their association was a movement called Dadaism. Dada means hobby horse in French, and the expatriates in Paris were attempting to deal with their war-wracked,demoralized state by simplifying their art and writing to the point of absurdity and child’s play. “Wine of Wyoming” seems in many ways to fit this Dadaist model.

The expatriates were influenced by dreams, the unconscious, and free association. They rejected the bourgeois in society and the Victorian age and used this model to protest the insanity of war. One of the strongest influences was cartoonist George Harriman’s cartoon strip Krazy Kat in the New York Times . In the case of Hemingway, heavy drinking seems to have contributed to the nonsensical style of “Wine of Wyoming.”

Wister and Yellowstone

Pauline and an exhausted Ernest headed for Yellowstone National Park after he finished A Farewell to Arms . On the way, they stopped in Shell, Wyo., on the west side of the Bighorns, to meet Owen Wister, who wrote The Virginian , the most famous western of its time, set in Wyoming. Wister was an ardent supporter of Hemingway’s work, and the two shared a dedication to observation and detail.

Wister was born in 1860. By the time he died in 1938, he said, “It’s not my world anymore.” Hemingway would remember Wister as a “sweet old guy” and “most unselfish and loving,” one of the few writers he ever liked. Wister was an old-fashioned gentleman and one of the last of a vanishing breed.

After taking in the beauty of Yellowstone National Park, Hemingway and Pauline concluded their automobile trip in Casper, where they caught the train to visit Pauline’s family in Piggot, Ark. Hemingway reportedly wrote 600 pages in Wyoming that summer, which was about the same number of fish he and Pauline had caught during their stay.

The L Bar T near Cody

In 1930, Hemingway, Pauline, and Ernest’s son Jack (Bumby) returned to Wyoming, this time traveling to Cody, Wyo., named for its founder, Wild West showman William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody. From there, the Hemingways found their way to the L Bar T Ranch, northwest of Cody, in Wyoming but near Cooke City, Mont. The ranch was owned by Olive and Lawrence Nordquist, who would become his friends. Ernest liked the L Bar T because no one seemed to know him there and when they learned who he was, they didn’t seem to care. Olive Nordquist reported that Hemingway started each day with a big breakfast and half a bottle of wine, then retired to his cabin to write. For the rest of the day, he drank whiskey. He was working on Death in the Afternoon , his bullfight book.

That first year at the L Bar T, there were reports of a black bear bothering cattle on the South Fork of the Shoshone River. Hemingway and the other hunters killed a horse, sliced it open and left it in the sun to rot. When the bear was attracted, they shot her.

Whether it was recklessness, alcohol, sheer accident or some combination, injuries plagued him. After killing a grizzly at the L Bar T, Ernest galloped triumphantly down the mountain, smashed his knee and had to be taken to the Cody hospital, where he suffered septicemia. In another accident, he slashed his face while hunting and required stitches. Accidents are a recognized manifestation of PTSD, especially in those who have experienced war.

In November 1930, he rolled his car while trying to avoid an oncoming car on one of the narrow roads of the time. A spiral fracture of his arm required several surgeries and a two-month recovery in the hospital in Billings, Mont. In true Hemingway fashion, he made notes and observations that would become the short story “The Gambler, the Nun, and the Radio.”

In 1936, Hemingway worked on To Have and Have Not at the L Bar T. The book is violent, with death or the threat of death as a constant theme. He wrote to poet Archibald MacLeish from the ranch that he had killed two grizzlies. He would later kill another.

In the letter, he told his friend, “Me I like life very much. So much that it will be a big disgust when have to shoot myself.” And he lamented that no one liked what he wrote anymore. He hadn’t had a big hit since A Farewell to Arms .

In 1939, Ernest brought with him to the L Bar T the portable radio he had carried during the Spanish Civil War. On Sept. 1, 1939, he ran out into the field, shouting for anyone to hear, “The Germans have marched into Poland! The Germans have marched into Poland!” It was a watershed moment and the end of an era World War II had begun in Europe. Ernest would never again return to the L Bar T.

That last visit to the L Bar T was a watershed in another way. Within the span of a few days in July, Hemingway had separate encounters with two of his wives, Martha Gellhorn, whom he would soon marry, and all his children. The meeting with Hadley Mowrer (now remarried) focused on their son, Bumby. Later, Pauline flew out to meet him his intent was to use this time to end their marriage. Without missing a beat, Hemingway left with Martha to drive to Sun Valley, Idaho, before Martha, a journalist, set out to Finland to cover the war.

He had met the restless and ambitious Martha in 1936 at Sloppy Joe’s café and bar in Key West, Fla. The history of Hemingway’s triangulations was repeating, with Martha now the third party, just as Pauline had been when Ernest and Hadley were married.

Cheyenne and a new wife

Ernest and Pauline divorced in November 1940, and again without missing a beat, Ernest and Martha were married that same month by a justice of the peace at the Union Pacific Railroad depot in Cheyenne.Traveling by train, they got off to get married, then traveled on to New York. Almost as if it were a honeymoon present, Martha begged Hemingway to go with her to China. There, she covered the war in China for Collier’s Magazine , and Ernest secured a magazine assignment of his own. He called her “Ambition” and she called him “U.C.” for “uncooperative companion.”

He could also be called spy: A Soviet-era document reveals that before he left for China, Hemingway signed on for espionage with the Soviet Union.

In 1944, as both covered the war, Martha arrived in England where Hemingway was recovering in the hospital from a concussion caused by an auto accident after a drunken party. She was not inclined to be sympathetic, as she despised his overeating and drinking. In London, Hemingway met and began to court Mary Welsh.

Mary worked as a feature writer for Time , Life and Fortune magazines. He was still married to Martha, but their marriage was unraveling. Martha divorced him in 1945, and he and Mary married in 1946 in Cuba. Richard and Marjorie Cooper hosted the wedding reception at their flat in Vedado, Cuba. Richard had served in the British army but also had ties to Wyoming. Their gift to the Hemingways was a set of silverware engraved with a custom design that included mountains, arrows and military insignia.

Casper and a difficult pregnancy

In 1946 in Casper, Hemingway again witnessed a wife endure a dangerous pregnancy. Mary was admitted to Natrona County Hospital with an ectopic pregnancy and a ruptured fallopian tube. After hours of intense pain, her veins collapsed, and the attending physician declared he could do no more.

Ernest scrubbed and flew into action, demanded the physician find a competent vein and give plasma. Ernest manipulated the bag and line until it flowed. After more plasma, blood transfusions, and surgery, she survived. For Ernest, this was proof that “fate could be f--ked.”

Hemingway met his sons in Rawlins and took them to Casper, where they fished in the North Platte River while Mary rested in the hospital. At the Mission Motor Court in Casper, Ernest began the manuscript that would later become Garden of Eden . At the same time, he was writing the novel, Across the River and into the Trees. The setting is once again Italy, yet Wyoming makes an early appearance.

In the novel, Jackson, the driver, is an auto mechanic from Rawlins. He talks about going to that “big place,” the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, to look at paintings because he thinks he ought to. The colonel reminds him the painters were restricted to religious subjects and asks him his theories on art. Jackson remarks he wishes they would paint some of the high country around Cortina, the “sunset color rocks, the pines, and the snow and all the pointed steeples.”

“If I had a joint or a roadhouse or some sort of inn, say, I could use one of those,’ the driver said. ‘But if I brought home a picture of some woman, my old woman would run me from Rawlins to Buffalo. I’d be lucky if I got to Buffalo.”

“You could give it to the local museum.”

“All they got in the local museum is arrow heads, war bonnets, scalping knives, different scalps, petrified fish, pipes of peace, photographs of Liver Eating Johnston, and the skin of some bad man that they hanged him and some doctor skinned him out. One of those women pictures would be out of place there.”

Later, on the causeway entering Venice, the colonel says to Jackson, “…It’s a tougher town than Cheyenne when you really know it, and everybody is very polite.”

“I wouldn’t say Cheyenne was a tough town, sir.”

“Well, it’s a tougher town than Casper.”

“Do you think that’s a tough town, sir?”

“It’s an oil town. It’s a nice town.”

“But I don’t think it’s tough, sir. Or ever was.”

Liver Eating Johnston was not the only mountain man to make his way onto a page of Hemingway’s. In 1948, a former Soviet spy gave testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee, which came uncomfortably close to the writer. In a letter to his friend Charles “Buck” Lanham, Hemingway offered a “Jim Bridger defense.” Yes, he had done odd jobs for the Soviets, he said, but he was trustworthy like Bridger. He compared his actions to those of the fur trapper, who had mediated between Indian tribes and encroaching settlers.

The Lanham friendship was sealed during World War II. Hemingway served as a war correspondent embedded with Colonel Lanham’s infantry regiment in France and was later reprimanded for military activities that were not allowed in his role as a correspondent.

Hemingway lived by his own code. In literature, it had to do with his revolutionary writing style.

A long Wyoming friendship

Hemingway visited Richard and Marjorie Cooper in Wyoming. More often, the Coopers and Hemingways met in Cuba, Bimini, and Tanganyika, where the Coopers owned a tea plantation.

Cooper’s entrepreneurial father, Frank, had moved his wife, son Richard, and daughter Barbara from Medicine Bow, Wyo., back to England but had to return to Wyoming in 1904 when oil was discovered in McFadden, near Medicine Bow (setting for The Virginian ). Richard Cooper had to maintain residence in Wyoming to collect the royalties.

Hemingway and Cooper shared more than a friendship. At different times they both had affairs with the same woman, Jane Mason, in Africa and Cuba. This worldly, wealthy lifestyle meant the Hemingway and Cooper children were frequently without their parents. The Coopers’ son and daughter were left in the care of Cooper’s sister Barbara in the Laramie home at Grand Avenue and 15th Street. (The house is now home to the University of Wyoming’s American Studies program.)

In 1951, Hemingway endured a string of losses. Richard Cooper drowned in three inches of water in a lake in Africa. Both Ernest’s mother and his former wife Pauline died in 1951, and he expressed considerable remorse.

Hemingway was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for Old Man and the Sea in 1953. In 1954, he was awarded the Nobel Prize, but was unable to travel to Sweden because of declining health.

Casper again

The last Hemingway site in Wyoming is again Casper. His friend A.E. Hotchner described the April, 1961, scene. Ernest was on a flight from Idaho to the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, where he received electric shock treatment for depression. The plane stopped in Casper for repairs, and he tried to walk into the moving propeller, presumably an attempted suicide.

At 61, Hemingway was battling depression, diabetes, high blood pressure, and liver disease caused from years of hard drinking.

When two professors from the University of Montana had come to Ketchum the previous November to invite Hemingway to lecture, they were stunned by his frail appearance and demeanor: He spoke in spurts and didn’t want to discuss his writing at all. The scene was reminiscent of Hemingway’s visit with Owen Wister more than 30 years earlier in that they considered Hemingway “enormously considerate,” gentle, and a man with “Old World manners.”

The electroshock therapy resulted in memory loss and an inability to string words together. After a second hospitalization, again at Mayo with more electroshock, he was discharged with the prognosis that he was improved, yet Mary felt that he was not. Though she had locked up the guns, Ernest knew where the keys were. On July 2 ,1961, in Ketchum, he held a gun to his forehead and, like his father, pulled the trigger.

In Hemingway’s story, “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” first published in Esquire in 1936, a dying writer waits to be flown out of the African bush for treatment of gangrene. In his fevered state, he remembers Wyoming:

But what about the rest that he had never written?

What about the ranch and the silvered gray of the sage brush, the quick, clear water in the irrigation ditches, and the heavy green of the alfalfa. The trail went up into the hills and the cattle in the summer were shy as deer. The bawling and steady noise and slow moving mass raising a dust as you brought them down in the fall. And behind the mountains, the clear sharpness of the peak in the evening light and, riding down along the trail in the moonlight, bright across the valley. Now he remembered coming down through the timber in the dark holding the horse’s tail when you could not see and all the stories he meant to write.

Papa: Ernest Hemingway’s Life

Of all the literary greats who have existed in the world, perhaps there was none other more rugged, manly and adventurous as that of Ernest Hemingway. The man was a literary giant, writing many classic books but at the same time, was a connoisseur of adventure travelling far and wide, going on many exotic hunts and engaging in life with a manly vim and vigor. Today we’re going to be looking at Ernest’s life and his exploits that go beyond the written word.

Ernest began his life in 1899, born on July 21 st in Chicago. Born to an affluent family, he lived his early years with a mother and father who taught him much about his life. His mother was somewhat of a forceful woman and pressed him to take cello lessons, causing him to feel a great deal of frustration and ire towards her over the lessons. His relationship with his father was far more stable as the man taught Ernest how to hunt, fish and live off the land. This what would go on to form the personality that Ernest would have for the rest of his life, as a man who enjoyed the outdoors and adventure greatly.

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The call to adventure was strong to Ernest and after working as a journalist for a few years, he answered the call to serve in World War I as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross. Such a decision was commonplace at the time, as there were many young men who sought to serve their country in some way. He served on the front lines in Italy, bravely transporting the wounded across the battlefield and making sure to deliver goods to the soldiers who were often in great need of morale boosts. As he served, he was injured greatly by some mortar fire, damaging both of his legs severely. He would go on to spend a few months at a hospital before being released to go back home. His efforts were rewarded with the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery, but Ernest would never be the same after the injuries.

He found himself at home dealing with anxiety and frustration. He had been injured to the point where he came to realized his own mortality. He had only been a boy, 18 at the time, and thought prior to the incident that he was invincible. He then realized the unfortunate truth about his own life and spent a great deal of time in solitude reflecting upon the nature of his condition.

In the time of his recovery, he had fallen in love with a nurse for the Red Cross, but she had scorned him by leaving him for another man, creating a deep-seated bitterness in his heart. He continued writing during his time of recovery, going eventually to work for the Toronto Star Weekly as a freelance writer for them. His work wasn’t anything particularly inspiring back then, but he did pay the bills with it. Over time, he found himself returning to Chicago where he would go on to meet a woman whom he fell deeply in love with. Her name was Hadley Richardson and she was everything that he felt that he had wanted in a woman. Perhaps one of the greatest problems in Ernest’s love life was the fact that he often was worried about being abandoned, as colored by his first real relationship with the nurse from the Red Cross. He would go on to have four marriages total, leaving his wives before they had a chance to leave him each time. He quickly married Hadley and took a job working as a foreign correspondent in Paris, allowing them to move to the fashionable European country and spend their days together in wedded bliss.

It was here in Paris where he made one of his better friendships with the writer James Joyce. Together, they were a fun pair, visiting the bar scenes of Paris and engaging in quite a large degree of drinking. As the stories go, Joyce would often end up getting into some kind of altercation with someone and then Joyce would hide behind Ernest for protection. Ernest, being somewhat of a boxing enthusiast, would happily protect his companion from the danger.

Indeed, Paris was a time for real artists to connect to one another and for Hemingway it was no different. He met with dozens of affluent and skillful artists, writers and poets of the time. He wasn’t particularly a man who minced words and many a time he would run afoul of more than a few literary figures, but he was a man who lived larger than life in his time in Paris. Of all the people that he made connections with, Gertrude Stein was one of the more impactful. Gertrude was a well-regarded writer at the time and she was someone who was able to help Hemingway advance his career by mentoring him. She was able to assist him in getting his work distributed and picked up by the publishers, but at the same time, there was some tension between them, perhaps over Stein’s sexuality. Eventually he would pull away from her and begin to quarrel with her this would span over several decades.

Ernest grew bored with the life of a journalist, however. Writing articles, news and pieces about the comings and goings of the world around him didn’t have the same level of pizzazz and excitement that he had come to desire. His relationship with F. Scott Fitzgerald also created a desire to write more than just journalistic articles. He soon decided that he wanted to write a novel and began to work on what is considered to be the best Hemingway book ever written, The Sun Also Rises.

As he wrote the book, he started an affair with a young woman by the name of Pauline Pfeiffer, which would eventually go one to erode his marriage with his wife, causing her to leave him. Hemingway shortly married Pauline afterwards. With the Sun Also Rises growing prominent, Hemingway’s name began to take on a seriousness about it within the literary world. His next major work, A Farewell to Arms solidified his name as being one of the great American authors. His style was different from a lot of the other writers, who often wrote in long prose. He wrote short sentences, spoke with a plainness and focused intensely on the emotions and experiences that the characters were feeling. The man had no desire to create long, elegant sentences that achieved nothing. One of his philosophies in writing was to simply display truth without a need for waxing on and on without saying anything of value. This simplicity crafted sharp, smart pieces of art that most people could read without having their eyes glaze over.

Of course, such a style had its criticisms. There were many a writer who believed that Hemingway was overrated, that his rugged lifestyle was what contributed to his success and not his literary skill. Still, his works were growing more successful and with that success, his lifestyle grew more rugged. He began to study bullfighting up close and personally, going as far as to write a complete book about the subject. He travelled to Key West, where he would spend some time fishing for marlins and would even go as far as East Africa on safari, hunting in the Serengeti. His life of adventure went as far as to when he lived in Spain during 1937, reporting on the Spanish Civil War.

He spent some time living in Cuba as well, but as World War 2 began to come on the horizon, he knew that it was his duty to help serve his country. Hemingway’s idea to serve his nation faithfully was to outfit his fishing boat, the Pilar, into a Nazi Submarine hunting vessel. The Nazi’s at the time were sinking many boats, including civilian crafts. The Nazi submarines would often rise up when they saw an unarmed ship and would board it forcibly. Hemingway disguised his ship to look like an ordinary vessel, but outfitted it with heavy weaponry and enlisted a crew of his faithful friends to patrol the waters for weeks at a time, searching to lure out Nazi submarines. They were never particularly successful in this endeavor, but the sheer bravery and stupidity of his mission was a trademark of Hemingway’s outlook on life: all adventure, no hesitation.

Perhaps one of the more interesting stories about Ernest was his time reporting on the Second World War. The man was there at Omaha beach during the Landing at Normandy, watching the chaos and danger as one of the greatest military operations ever commenced. He was unable to move onto the beaches, however, because of his head injury, an injury that had been sustained due to a car accident due to his predilection for alcohol and driving in the dark streets of London. But still, he watched and recorded the battle from the safety of a vessel out to sea. From there, he was attached to several military regiments, one of which moved to liberate Paris. Hemingway’s penchant for writing and understanding of war allowed him to be an integral part of recording stories during the second world war, even earning him a bronze star for his willingness to enter into serious warzones as a journalist and record the information accurately, despite the fact that there was tremendous risk to his own life.

Ernest Hemingway

An early role model for the young Ernest Hemingway was the sports journalist Ring Lardner. Once out of high school Hemingway himself became a journalist, and he used an objective journalistic style throughout his writing career.

Ernest Miller Hemingway was the first son and the second child born to Clarence Edmonds "Doctor Ed" Hemingway, a country doctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway.

While his mother hoped that her son would develop an interest in music, Hemingway adopted his father's ‘outdoors’ hobbies of hunting, fishing and camping in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan. The family owned a house called Windemere on Michigan's Walloon Lake and often spent summers vacationing there. These early experiences in close contact with nature instilled in Hemingway a lifelong passion for outdoor adventure and for living in remote or isolated areas.

At school he excelled both academically and athletically he boxed, played football, and displayed a particular talent in English classes.

After high school, young Hemingway did not want to go to college. Instead, aged eighteen, he opted for a writing career as a junior reporter for The Kansas City Star. However, after only a few months in the role he tried to join the army. He failed the medical examination due to poor vision, and instead joined the Red Cross towards the end of World War I in 1918. On his journey to the Italian front, he stopped in Paris, which was under constant bombardment from German artillery. Instead of staying in the relative safety of his hotel, Hemingway tried to get as close to combat as possible.

In July of that year, he was wounded by a mortar fragment. The Italian government later presented him with a medal for dragging a wounded Italian soldier to safety in spite of his own injuries.

After his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the Greek Revolution.

During the 1920s, he lived in Paris with his first wife Hadley Richardson, working as a foreign correspondent. He was eventually introduced to writer Gertrude Stein, who became his mentor and led him to join the American expatriate circle that became known as the Lost Generation - which he described in his first important work, 'The Sun Also Rises' (1926).

After Hadley became pregnant in 1923, the Hemingways left Paris and moved to Toronto, where he wrote for the Toronto Daily Star and waited for their child, John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway, to arrive.

The family soon returned to Paris, with Hemingway determined to make a name for himself. Between 1925 and 1929, he produced some of the most important works of 20th century fiction, including the landmark short story collection 'In Our Time' (1925) which contained 'The Big Two-Hearted River'. In 1926, he published 'The Sun Also Rises', followed by 'Men Without Women' in 1927. Two years later, he published 'A Farewell to Arms', arguably the finest novel to emerge from World War I. In four short years he went from being an unknown writer to being the most important writer of his generation, and perhaps the 20th century.

Hemingway divorced Hadley Richardson in 1927 and married Pauline Pfeiffer, a fashion reporter. The couple moved to Florida the following year to begin a new life. However, Hemingway’s life would take a tragic turn shortly after, when his father committed suicide.

His second son, Patrick, was born later that year – with third son Gregory coming along a few years later.

In 1937, Hemingway travelled to Spain in order to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. The war put a strain on his marriage. His wife Pauline was a devout Catholic and, as such, sided with the fascist, pro-Catholic regime of Franco, whereas Hemingway supported the Republican government.

Shortly after Franco’s Fascists took power in Spain, Hemingway returned to Florida and was divorced from Pauline. Hemingway married his companion of four years in Spain, Martha Gellhorn, his third wife. His novel 'For Whom the Bell Tolls' was published in 1940. The book, which takes place during the Spanish Civil War, was based on real events and tells of an American named Robert Jordan fighting with Spanish soldiers on the Republican side. It was largely based upon Hemingway's experience of living in Spain and reporting on the war. It is considered to be one of his most notable literary accomplishments.

During the Second World War, he worked for the resistance movement in Paris. After the war he moved to Cuba, where he lived until he was forced to leave in 1959 after Fidel Castro’s Communist revolutionaries took power. 'The Old Man and the Sea' was written and set in Cuba, and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1953.

His overall achievement as a writer was acknowledged when he won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954.

Sadly, Hemingway suffered from manic depression (bipolar disorder), and had been treated with electroshock therapy. Hemingway blamed these sessions for disrupting his memory. Following an unsuccessful attempt in the spring of 1961, he committed suicide a few months later. He was 61.

Ernest Hemingway – A Short Biography

Ernest Hemingway, famous author and journalist, was born in the affluent Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899. His father was a doctor his mother, a musician. He was named after his maternal grandfather, Ernest Hall. As a young man, he was interested in writing he wrote for and edited his high school’s newspaper, as well as the high school yearbook. Upon graduating from Oak Park and River Forest High School in 1917, he worked for the Kansas City Star newspaper briefly, but in that short time, he learned the writing style that would shape nearly all of his future work.

As an ambulance driver in Italy during World War I, Ernest Hemingway was wounded and spent several months in the hospital. While there, he met and fell in love with a Red Cross nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky. They planned to marry however, she became engaged to an Italian officer instead.

This experience devastated Hemingway, and Agnes became the basis for the female characters in his subsequent short stories “A Very Short Story” (1925) and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” (1936), as well as the famous novel “A Farewell To Arms” (1929). This would also start a pattern Ernest would repeat for the rest of his life – leaving women before they had the chance to leave him first.

Ernest Hemingway began work as a journalist upon moving to Paris in the early 1920s, but he still found time to write. He was at his most prolific in the 20s and 30s. His first short story collection, aptly titled “Three Stories and Ten Poems,” was published in 1923. His next short story collection, “In Our Time,” published in 1925, was the formal introduction of the vaunted Hemingway style to the rest of the world, and considered one of the most important works of 20th century prose. He would then go on to write some of the most famous works of the 20th century, including “A Farewell to Arms,” “The Sun Also Rises,” “For Whom the Bell Tolls,” and “The Old Man and the Sea.” He also won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.

Ernest Hemingway lived most of his later years in Idaho. He began to suffer from paranoia, believing the FBI was aggressively monitoring him. In November of 1960 he began frequent trips to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, for electroconvulsive therapy – colloquially known as “shock treatments.” He had his final treatment on June 30, 1961. Two days later, on July 2, 1961, he committed suicide by shooting himself in the mouth with a twelve-gauge shotgun. He was a few weeks short of his 62nd birthday. This wound up being a recurring trend in his family his father, as well as his brother and sister, also died by committing suicide. The legend of Hemingway looms large, and his writing style is so unique that it left a legacy in literature that will endure forever.

Ernest Hemingway timeline

Ernest Hemingway Is Born

Ernest Hemingway, born in Oak Park, Illinois, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City at the age of seventeen. After. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Joins The Red Cross

Hemingway first went to Paris upon reaching Europe, then traveled to Milan in early June after receiving his orders. The day he arrived, a. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Marries Hadley Richardson

She was raised in St. Louis, Missouri and married Ernest Hemingway on September 3, 1921. Together they moved to Paris, France, and in the fall of. Read more

Ernest Hemingway is Introduced to Gertrude Stein

In the 1920s, her salon at 27 Rue de Fleurus, with walls covered by avant-garde paintings, attracted many of the great writers of the time. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Meets Ezra Pound

At the end of 1921, Ezra Pound rented a ground-floor apartment at 70 bis Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs (southwest of the Luxembourg Gardens). Hemingway. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Meets James Joyce

Hemingway was quick to see the merit in the work of James Joyce, not always a limpid writer. In a letter to Sherwood Anderson dated March 9, 1922. Read more

'In Our Time' Is Published

In Our Time is a collection of short stories by Ernest Hemingway. Each chapter consists of a vignette that in some way relates to the following. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Meets F. Scott Fitzgerald

In Hemingway’s memoir, A Moveable Feast, he describes the first time he met F. Scott Fitzgerald in the Dingo Bar on the rue Delambre where, as. Read more

'The Torrents of Spring' Is Published

Set in northern Michigan in the mid-1920s The Torrents of Spring is about two World War I veterans, Yogi Johnson and writer Scripps O'Neill, both. Read more

'The Sun Also Rises' Is Published

The Sun Also Rises epitomized the post-war expatriate generation for future generations. In The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway melds Paris to Spain. Read more

Hadley Richardson and Ernest Hemingway Are Divorced

Hemingway's marriage to Hadley broke down as he was writing and revising The Sun Also Rises. In the spring of 1926, Hadley became aware of his. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Marries Pauline Pfeiffer

Pauline Marie Pfeiffer (July 22, 1895 – October 21, 1951) was the second wife of the writer Ernest Hemingway. She was born in Parkersburg, Iowa on. Read more

'Men Without Women' Is Published

Hills Like White Elephants" is a short story by Ernest Hemingway. It was first published in the 1927 collection Men Without Women. The story. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Moves To Key West

The new Hemingways heard of Key West from Ernest’s friend John Dos Passos, and the two stopped at the tiny Florida island on their way back from. Read more

Ernest Hemingway's Father Clarence Commits Suicide

Suffering from severe diabetes and concerned about his financial future, Clarence Hemingway shot himself on December 6, 1928 with his father's. Read more

'A Farewell To Arms' Is Published

Pauline was pregnant at the time and on June 28, 1928 gave birth to Patrick by cesarean section. It was in December of that year that Hemingway. Read more

'Death In The Afternoon' Is Published

Death in the Afternoon (1932) marked a departure from the fiction-writing career of Ernest Hemingway. A study of the Spanish bullfight, the book. Read more

The Film Version of 'A Farewell to Arms' Is Released

Gary Cooper and Helen Hayes play Frederic and Catherine, a soldier and nurse who fall for each other in wartime, and they are matched perfectly. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Travels to Africa

In 1933 Hemingway and Pauline went on safari to East Africa, a 10-week trip that provided material for Green Hills of Africa as well as the short. Read more

'Winner Take Nothing' Is Published

Returning to fiction in 1933, Hemingway published Winner Take Nothing, a volume of short stories. The book contained 14 stories, including "A Clean. Read more

'Green Hills of Africa' Is Published

Green Hills of Africa initially got a cool reception. Writing for The New York Times, critic John Chamberlain claimed: "Green Hills of Africa" is. Read more

Ernest Hemingway Reports On The Spanish Civil War

In March 1937 Hemingway traveled to Spain to cover the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. The civil war caused a marital. Read more

'To Have and Have Not' Is Published

The novel consists of two earlier short stories ("One Trip Across" and "The Tradesman's Return") that make up the opening chapters and a novella. Read more

'The Fifth Column and the First 49 Stories' is Published

And so "The Fifth Column" is autobiographical drama. Philip Rawlings, its leading man and a Loyalist agent, justified his apparently dissolute. Read more

'For Whom the Bell Tolls' is Published

This novel is told primarily through the thoughts and experiences of Robert Jordan, a character inspired by Hemingway's own experiences in the. Read more

Watch the video: Interview dErnest Hemingway