Duncan III DD- 874 - History

Duncan III DD- 874 - History

Duncan III

(DD-874: dp. 2,425, 1. 390'6"; b. 41'1", dr. 18'6"; s. 34 k.; cpl. 367; a. 6 6", 5 21" tt., 6 dep., 2 act.; cl. Gearing)

The third Duncan (DD-874) was launched 27 October 1944 by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex.; sponsored by Mrs. D. C. Thayer, and commissioned 25 February 1945, Commander P. Williams in command. She was reclassified DDR-874 on 18 March 1949.

Duncan, converted to a radar picket destroyer during her postshakedown overhaul, sailed from Norfolk 2 June 1945 for the Pacific, and after touching at San Diego and Pearl Harbor, joined Cabot (CVL-28) for screening and plane guard duty during the strikes on Wake Island of 1 August. After calling at Eniwetok, she continued to Okinawa to join the 7th Fleet for patrol duty off the Chinese and Korean coasts during the landing of occupation troops at Tsingtao, Taku, and Jinsen. Duncan served in the Far East on occupation duty until 25 March 1946 when she sailed for the west coast, arriving at San Diego 28 April.

For the next year Duncan trained along the west coast keeping high her operational skills and readiness. In May 1947 she departed San Diego for a 5-month cruise to the Far East, where she visited Okinawa, Japan, and China. On her return to the States, Duncan resumed coastal operations with both aircraft and submarines. On 1 March 1948 she suffered 2 killed and 14 injured in an explosion on board. After repairs at Long Beach Calif., the destroyer rejoined the fleet for training until January 1949, when she again sailed for the western Pacific, this time for 8 months.

Duncan operated between San Diego and Pearl Harbor until November 1950 when she steamed into Korean waters to join the 7th Fleet in its unremitting projection of sea power against Communist aggression. Duncan served a total of three tours off Korea during the fighting in that ravaged land. She sailed as plane guard for carriers and as antisubmarine escort for battleships; she fired shore bombardments in support of minesweepers and to interdict enemy communications; she patrolled against North Korean minesweepers and fishing craft. Through all she added her significant contribution to the vast and indispensable sea-borne support of the United Nations troops ashore.

Since the end of the Korean fighting in 1953, Duncan has remained busy in the Pacific, alternating Far Eastern duty with training and maintenance on the west coast. She has visited Australia, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and many islands of the Pacific during her far flung travels in guarding peace and order. At the end of 1960, nun can lay in Long Beach Naval Shipyard, undergoing extensive overhaul and modernization a sign of many more active years ahead.

Duncan received seven battle stars for Korean war service.


Duncan III DD- 874 - History

British and Irish pewter is often unmarked. If marks are present, they can help in identifying when and where the item was made or used.

Types of mark

Whereas the marks on silver and gold have always been tightly controlled, there was very little control over the marks used by pewterers. As a result, they vary widely in form and significance. They fall into five broad categories:

  • ‘touch marks’, often including the pewterer’s name or initials
  • pseudo-hallmarks
  • quality marks
  • labels
  • numbers

Wares often have marks from more than one of these categories, and that can be very helpful. Because pewter is a soft metal, marks can often get very worn, but even if a touch is too worn to identify, you might nevertheless be able to identify the pewterer from other marks that are present.

Identifying the pewterer

There was no central register of pewterers or their marks, so identifying the pewterers and the marks they used is only possible as a result of decades of research, a process that is still ongoing. The Pewter Society database of British & Irish makers and their marks is the most comprehensive source of information. It supersedes all printed publications on the subject, is being constantly updated and it is only available to members. Join the society and carry the database around with you via your mobile phone or tablet when visiting auctions, antiques fairs and antique shops.

If you only have a couple of pieces, the Society is willing to identify the marks for you if we can. This service is free, but it is not available to dealers nor to individuals if the sole purpose of the identification is to facilitate the sale of the item.

See our Help with identification section and recent enquires in that section

Who else used marks?

Whilst pewterers sold wares they had made themselves, they would also sometimes buy stock wholesale from other pewterers to add to the range of wares they could offer for sale. Thus often we cannot be sure whether the pewterer whose marks appear on a piece actually made it or merely sold it. Indeed, sometimes you will find the marks of two different pewterers – the one who made it and the one who sold it.

In the 19th and 20th centuries other businesses such as ironmongers started buying wholesale from pewterers and re-selling under their own name. In these cases the marks don’t belong to a pewterer at all but merely to a retailer.

Unmarked pieces

Many pieces of pewter were never marked. We don’t know why, but the items are normally of perfectly good quality and so there’s no reason to be suspicious of them.


History Of The MackenziesbyAlexander Mackenzie

Murthly and Grandtully, who died in 1891, without issue Eliza,
who died at Cairo, unmarried, in 1889 Frances Cecil Catherine
Laura, who married Sir Francis William Grant, Baronet of Monymusk,
who died in 1887, without issue and Georgina Arbuthnot. John
Fraser of Bunchrew died in 1876. (e) Prudence, Richard Ord's
second daughter, married Bailie John Mackenzie, Inverness, son
of John Mackenzie of Ardnagrask, eldest son of Hector Mackenzie
of Sand, Gairloch, and of Ardnagrask, with issue (for which see
Gairloch Genealogy, pp. 416-418). Elizabeth, on the death of
her first husband, Richard Ord, married, secondly, as his second
wife, Farquhar Macrae of Inverinate, without issue.

4. Roderick, who died unmarried.

5. Mary, who married William Mackenzie of Achilty and Kinnahaird,
brother of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Coul, with issue.

6. Margaret, who married Captain Joseph Avery. They afterwards
went to Carolina, and left issue.

7. Frances, who married John Macleod of Bay, Isle of Skye, with
issue - one daughter.

8. Christian, who married William Tolmie, first a merchant
at Fortrose, and subsequently factor for Macleod of Macleod at
Dunvegan, Isle of Skye, with issue, among others - John, tacksman of
Uiginish, Skye, who married Jean, daughter of Murdoch Mackenzie,
merchant, Stornoway, son of Roderick Mackenzie, III. of Avoch,
with issue - John, who succeeded his father at Uiginish and married
a daughter of Hugh MacCaskill, tacksman of Tallisker, with
issue - the Rev. John Tolmie, M.A. Jean, who married Laurence
Skene, banker, Portree, with issue Normana, who married Donald
MacLellan, tacksman of Vatersay, Barra, with issue and several
other sons and daughters, who emigrated to Australia and New
Zealand. The first-named John Tolmie had also two daughters, one
of whom, Barbara, married John Macdonald, tacksman of Scolpaig,
North Uist, with issue - the late John Macdonald, Newton, one of
the finest men and best factors that ever lived and Margaret, who
married William MacNeil, tacksman of Newton, North Uist, and died
in 1893 without issue. The other daughter, Annabella, married
her cousin Hector, second son of Captain John Mackenzie, VI.
of Ballone, with issue - John Tolmie Mackenzie, now residing at
Dunvegan, Isle of Skye.

Alexander was succeeded by his eldest son,

VIII. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, eighth and last Baron of Davochmaluag.
He also was Sheriff-Substitute of Ross and was Captain of an Independent
Company in 1746. He married, first, Magdalene, daughter of Hugh
Rose, XV. of Kilravock (marriage contract 1723), with issue -

1. Kenneth, who died before his father, of consumption, in 1753,
at Cowes, Isle of Wight, while serving an apprenticeship with George
Mackenzie, merchant there.

2. Jean, who married, first, William Mackenzie, son of Donald
Mackenzie, V. of Kilcoy, without issue and secondly, Alexander
Mackenzie, VIII. of Fairburn, with issue - Roderick, who succeeded
as IX. of Fairburn, and Kenneth, Lieutenant in the 21st Regiment,
who served under General Burgoyne in America, where he was killed,
unmarried, at Saratoga, in September, 1777.

3. Beatrice, who married John Mackenzie, II. of Brae, with issue.

4. Mary, who married Farquhar MacRae of Inverinate, with issue.

5. Magdalene, who married the Rev. Alexander Mackay, minister of
Barvas, Lewis, without issue.

Alexander married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Roderick Mackenzie,
IV. of Applecross, and widow of Alexander Mackenzie of Lentran,
with issue - Anne, who married George Mackenzie, III. of Pitlundie,
Sheriff-Substitute of Ross, with issue. He died without male issue
in 1776, and was succeeded by his grandson,

IX. KENNETH MACKENZIE, ninth of Davochmaluag, son of his eldest
daughter, Jean, a Lieutenant in the army, killed, as already stated,
without issue, at Saratoga in 1777 and having survived his cousin,
Roderick Mackenzie, eldest son of John Mackenzie, II. of Brae,
the lineal representation of the family devolved upon Alexander
Mackenzie, XI. of Hilton.


THE MACKENZIES OF ACHILTY.

THE first of this family was the third son of Kenneth Mackenzie,
VII. of Kintail, by Agnes Fraser of Lovat. He was originally
designated of Acha-ghluineachan, but afterwards as

I. RORY MOR MACKENZIE, first of Achilty. He was a most powerful
man, and numerous instances of his prowess are still related among
his countrymen, the most noted of which was his defeat of the famous
Italian champion before King James V. (described pp. 104-107). He
married, first, a daughter of Farquhar MacEachainn Maclean, with
issue -

1. Alastair Roy, his heir and successor.

2. Alastair Dubh, who died without issue.

3. John Roy, who married, with issue.

He married, secondly, a lady of the name of Grant, widow of Ross
of Balnagown, also with issue.

By a daughter of William Dubh Macleod he had four natural sons,
the eldest of whom, Murdoch, legitimatised by James V. in 1539, was
progenitor of the family of Fairburn. The other three - Alexander,
John, and Roderick - were also legitimatised by the same King in
1541.

Rory Mor died on the 17th of March, 1533, was buried at Beauly,
and succeeded by his eldest son,

II. ALASTAIR ROY MACKENZIE, second of Achilty, who married a
daughter of John Chisholm, XIII. of Chisholm. with issue -

1. Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2. Rory, who married, with issue - a daughter, who married Duncan
Fraser of Munlochy, and Donald, who was also married, with issue.

3. John, who married Tullochgorm's daughter, with issue - a son
Alexander, who lived at Struy.

He died at Lochbroom in 1578, was buried there, and succeeded by
his eldest son,

III. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, third of Achilty, who married a daughter
of Roderick Mackenzie, II. of Davochmaluag, with issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Murdoch, I. of Ardross and Pitglassie, progenitor of the present
Mackenzies of Dundonnel.

3. Kenneth, of whom nothing is known.

4. Rory, who married, first, a daughter of Alastair MacAllan, by
whom he had Murdo Mackenzie, afterwards Bishop of Raufoe in Ireland.
He married, secondly, a daughter of Hector Mackenzie, son of
Murdoch Mackenzie, I. of Fairburn, with issue, two sons - Alexander
and Hector, and four daughters who married respectively Allan
Mackenzie of Loggie Dougal Mac Ian Oig Rory Clark and Lachlan
Mac Mhurchaidh Mhic Eachainn, of Gairloch.

5. Isobel, who married Alexander Mackenzie of Inchcoulter, with
issue.

He died on the 14th of March, 1609, was buried in Lochbroom, and
succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, fourth of Achilty, who married a daughter
of David Chambers, with issue -

1. Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2. John, who married a daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, I. of the
old family of Davochcairn.

3. Thomas, who married a daughter of Duncan Mackenzie, I. of Sand
and several daughters, who married respectively James Macleod,
Assynt Ranald MacGillespick Angus Mac Dhomhnuill Mhic Dhomhnuill
Hector Mackenzie, Mellan, Gairloch, second son of John Roy Mackenzie,
IV. of Gairloch, by his second marriage Kenneth Buidhe Mackenzie,
natural son of John Roy, IV. of Gairloch and Duncan Mackenzie,
Mhic Ian.

He died at Kildin in 1642, was buried at Dingwall, and succeeded
by his eldest son,

V. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, fifth of Achilty, who married, first, a
daughter of Hector Mackenzie, son of Alexander Roy, son of Hector
Cam, natural son of Hector Roy Mackenzie, I. of Gairloch, without
issue. He married, secondly, a daughter of Hector Mackenzie, IV.
of Fairburn, relict of Kenneth Mackenzie, I. of Davochcairn, with
issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Isobel, who, in 1701, married Kenneth, son of John MacIver of
Tournaig.

He married, thirdly, Isabel, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, V.
of Gairloch, relict successively of John Mackenzie of Lochslinn,
and Colin Mackenzie, I. of Tarvie, without issue.

He was succeeded by his only son,

VI. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, sixth of Achilty, Chamberlain of the
Lewis and Assynt in 1735. He married Christian Mackenzie, with
issue -

1. Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2. David, who married, with issue - Colin, who succeeded his uncle
Murdoch.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

VII. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, seventh of Achilty, who, in 1728, married
Anne, third daughter of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, first Baronet and
VIII. of Gairloch, without issue. He was succeeded by his nephew,
a son of his brother David,

VIII. COLIN MACKENZIE, eighth of Achilty, an Officer in the
78th Regiment, who married Janet, third daughter of Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, second Baronet and IX. of Gairloch. He was the last
who possessed the property. In 1784 he has a tack of the farm
of Kinkell, where he died in 1813, with his affairs involved. He
left one son, John, who died without issue, whereupon the property
passed to the Mackenzies of Applecross.


THE MACKENZIES OF ARDROSS, NOW OF DUNDONNEL.

THE progenitor of this family was Murdoch, second son of Murdoch
Mackenzie, III. of Achilty. He purchased the lands of Pitglassie
and Kildin, and married Catharine, daughter of John Mackenzie of
Tolly, with issue -

1. Kenneth, who, in 1699, married Agnes Fraser, and died before
his father, without issue.

2. Alexander, who succeeded his father.

3. John "Rapach," who married Anne, daughter of Colin Mackenzie,
III. of Kincraig, without issue.

4. William, Episcopal minister of Rosskeen, who married a daughter
of Fraser of Belladrum. He was admitted minister of Rosskeen
before the 9th of August, 1665, and he died on the 14th of March,
1714. He had a son described in 1709 as "John, his eldest son."
He also had a son called "Black Colin," who had the farm of
Achintoul in Rosskeen, and who married, with issue--(1) Alexander,
who married Lilias Mackenzie, daughter of Colin Mackenzie, II. of
Kincraig, with issue - a daughter, who married, first, Alexander
Ellison, and secondly, Alexander Aird (2) George, who married
a daughter of Gordon of Embo, with issue - Colin John and three
daughters, Mary, Nelly, and Margaret, who died at Invergordon
45 to 50 years ago, and "were as primitive in their appearance and
dress as if they had come out of Noah's ark." The Rev. William
had also three daughters, who married respectively the Rev. Allan
Clark, minister of Glenelg the Rev. Duncan MacCulloch, minister
of Urquhart, and Andrew Fraser, Chamberlain of Ferrintosh.

Murdoch died in 1655, was buried at Dingwall, and succeeded by his
second and eldest surviving son,

I. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, first of Dundonnel. He bought the lands
of Ardross during his father's lifetime, in 1644, formerly the
property of Ross of Tolly, and sold the lands of Pitglassie and
Kildin. He was served heir in 1662. He married Janet, daughter
of Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, with issue -

1. Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2. Kenneth, in Ulladale, who had a son Alexander, retoured as heir
general in 1715.

3. Hector, apprenticed to learn chirurgery in 1682.

4. William, who in 1681, married Christian, daughter of Colin
Mackenzie, II. of Kincraig.

6. Roderick, of whom nothing is known.

7. Isobella, who in 1678 married, as his second wife, Alexander
Mackenzie of Inchcoulter, brother-german to Sir George Mackenzie
of Rosehaugh.

He died in 1674, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, second of Dundonnel, who married a daughter
of Grant of Elchies, Strathspey, with issue -

1. John, his heir and successor.

2. Another son, who died in 1761.

3. Murdoch, tacksman of Clynes in 1745.

6. Margaret, who in 1709 married Gregor, heir of Robert Grant of
Gartenmor.

He was buried at Rosskeen, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

III. JOHN MACKENZIE, third of Dundonnel, who married Helen,
daughter of T. Erskine of Pittoderie, celebrated for her beauty,
with issue--

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Murdoch, who succeeded as V. of Ardross.

3. Margaret, who married James Muir of Stonywood, with issue.

4. Rachael, or Barbara, who married George Paton, of Grandholm,
with issue.

5. Jean, and several others - in all a family of fifteen. He was
buried at Rosskeen, and succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. RODERICK MACKENZIE, fourth of Dundonnel, who died without
issue, and was succeeded by his eldest brother,

V. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, fifth of Dundonnel, who in 1743, married
Bathia, daughter of John Paton of Grandholm. In his time was
concluded before Lord Mansfield in the House of Lords, a law-suit
which existed for four generations between his family and the
Rosses of Achnacloich or Tolly, regarding the validity of the sale
of the property to Alexander, second of the family, a litigation
which ruined the Rosses and involved the Mackenzies of Ardross
deeply in debt. He died, and was buried at Rosskeen, having had
issue, an only daughter, who succeeded to the property as sixth
of Dundonnel,

VI. MARGARET MACKENZIE, who in 1768 married James Munro of
Teaninich, Captain R.N., with issue -

1. Hugh Munro, Captain in the 78th Regiment, who succeeded to the
estate of Teaninich, and in 1846 died unmarried.

2. Murdoch, who resumed the name of Mackenzie, and succeeded his
mother in Ardross and Dundonnel.

3. Colonel Hector, who died unmarried in 1827.

4. Major-General John Munro, H.E.I.C. S., who married Charlotte,
daughter of Dr Blacker, with issue - (1) James St John, late Major
60th Rifles, who died in 1818, was married, and left issue - Maxwell,
Lieutenant 48th Regiment, and others (2) John (3) Stuart Caradoc
Munro, now of Teaninich (4) Maxwell William and (5) Charlotte,
who, in 1834, married the Hon. George A. Spencer, with issue.

5. Catherine, who married Thomas Warrand of Warrandfield, Inverness,
with issue - Robert, Major in the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons three
other sons and a daughter, all of whom died young.

6. Bathia and 7. Alexina, both of whom died young.

Margaret, whose husband died in 1845, was buried at Ardross, and
succeeded by her second son,

VII. MURDO MUNRO-MACKENZIE, seventh of Dundonnel, retoured in
1795. He sold Ardross to the Duke of Sutherland, and, in 1834,
purchased Dundonnel from Thomas Mackenzie, VI. of the old family
of Dundonnel. By the death of his elder brother, Hugh, without
issue, Murdo became the head of the family of Munro of Teaninich.
In 1838 he purchased the detached portions of the Cromarty estates,
including the forest of Fannich. He married Christina, daughter
of Robert Ross, Strathcullanach, Balnagown, with issue -

1. Hugh, who, in 1813, died young.

2. John, who died before his father in 1815.

3. Hugh, who succeeded his father.

4. Kenneth, who succeeded his brother Hugh.

5. Robert, Lieutenant-Colonel H.E.I.C.S., residing in Brisbane,
Queensland, married, with issue.

6. James, who died unmarried.

7. Murdo, who died unmarried.

8. Mary, who married Major-General Francis Archibald Reid, C.B.,
with issue.

9. Helen, who married Simon Mackenzie-Ross of Aldie, without
issue.

Murdo died at Dundonnel, was buried there, and succeeded by his
eldest surviving son,

VIII. HUGH MUNRO-MACKENZIE, who spent his whole time in beautifying,
improving, and increasing his estates, upon which he constantly
resided. He died unmarried, on the 30th of July, 1869, leaving his
fee-simple estates of Mungasdale, Gruinard, and Strath-na-Sealg,
to an illegitimate daughter, who afterwards married Mr Catton.

He was buried at Dundonnel, and succeeded by his brother, IX.
KENNETH MUNRO-MACKENZIE, who was trained to the medical profession,
qualified in Edinburgh, and afterwards practised successively in
Dublin, London, France, and Italy, and eventually emigrated to
New South Wales, from which he returned in 1870 after thirty-four
years - having established the members of his family in good
positions there - to his native county, to take possession of his
late brother's property. But this he only succeeded in doing
after many years of expensive litigation carried on against him
by his brother's natural daughter, Mrs Catton, who attempted to
overthrow the family settlements and obtain possession of all
the estates for herself. She, however, only succeeded in ruining
her own property, which had to be old to pay the lawyers.

He married, in 1838, Julia Smith, relict of Captain Edmund Harrison
Cliffe, of Sydney, New South Wales, with issue -

1. Murdo, his heir, who, born in 1843, accompanied his father
from Australia and afterwards succeeded to the property.

2. Hugh, of Bundanon, Shoulhaven, N.S.W., now of Dundonnel.

3. Helen, who, in 1870, married John Robinson of Shoulhaven,
N.S.W., with issue.

4. Mary, who in 1860 married James Thomson of Burner, Shoulhaven,
N.S.W., with issue.

5. Julia Anna, who married, in 1867, the Rev. Robert Spier Willis,
M.A., of the Church of England, Incumbent of Manly Beach, Sydney,
N.S.W., with issue.

Kenneth died in 1878, was buried at Dundonnel, and succeeded by
his eldest son,

X. MURDO MUNRO-MACKENZIE, tenth of Dundonnel. He died unmarried
and was succeeded by his only brother,

XI. HUGH MUNRO-MACKENZIE, eleventh of Dundonnel. He resides in
New South Wales. In 1876 he married Bella Mary, daughter of T.
T. Biddulph of Earie, Shoulhaven, N.S.W., with issue - Hugh, Bella,
and Mary.


THE MACKENZIES OF FAIRBURN.

THIS family is also descended from Roderick Mor Mackenzie, I. of
Achilty, by a daughter of William Dubh Macleod, VII. of Harris, by
whom he had a natural son,

I. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, first of Fairburn, who was granted letters
of legitimation by James V., dated 1st of July, 1539. On the 16th
of March, 1541, there are also letters of legitimation in favour
of "Alexandro Mackenze seniori, Joanni juniori, et Roderico
bastardis filus naturalibus, quondam Roderici Mackenze." Murdo
for some time lived at Court and was a Gentleman of the Bedchamber
to James V. He obtained a charter for his lands, dated 1st
of April, 1542, afterwards confirmed by Queen Mary in 1343. He
married, first, Margaret, daughter of Urquhart, Sheriff of Cromarty,
with issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. John, I. of Tolly, minister of Dingwall, who married Margaret,
daughter of Ballindalloch, with issue, among others - Murdoch,
II. of Tolly, who married Catherine, daughter of James Innes of
Inverbreakie, with issue.

3. Annabella, who married, first, Thomas Mackenzie of Lochluichart
and Ord, with issue and secondly, Alexander Mackenzie, progenitor
of Coul, also with issue.

4. A daughter, who married Ross of Priesthill. Murdoch married,
secondly, a daughter of Rory MacFarquhar Maclean, with issue -

5. Roderick, of Knockbaxter, from whom the Mackenzies of Kernsary,
of whom presently.

6. John, I. of Corry, who married a daughter of Donald Clark, with
issue - three sons and four daughters.

7. Hector, Chamberlain of Lochcarron.

8. Isabel, who, as his second wife, married John Roy Mackenzie,
IV. of Gairloch, with issue.

9. A daughter, who married Donald Glas Macdonald.

10. Mary, who married Wyland Chisholm, Kinkell, with issue - Agnes,
who married her cousin, Hector Mackenzie, IV. of Fairburn, with
issue.

Murdoch died in 1590, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, second of Fairburn, who married a
daughter of Walter Innes of Inverbreakie, with issue -

1. John, his heir and successor.

2. Hector, who succeeded his brother John in Fairburn.

3. Isobel, who married John Mackenzie, eldest son of John Roy,
IV. of Gairloch, who died in 1601, before his father, without male
issue. She married, secondly, Bayne of Tulloch.

4. A daughter, who married Murdo Mackenzie, II. of Kensary, with
issue - a daughter.

Alexander was succeeded by his eldest son,

III. JOHN MACKENZIE, third of Fairburn, who married Janet,
daughter of Torquil Macleod of Coigeach, without male issue, but by
her he had four daughters who married - the eldest, Murdo Mackenzie
of Sand Agnes, first, Murdo MacCulloch of Park, and secondly,
Roderick Mackenzie, II. of Corry Isobel, John Mackenzie of
Pitlundie and Annabella, Roderick Mackenzie, Ardlair the last
three being heirs portioners. He has a sasine of Monar in 1620.
He died in 1645, and was succeeded by his next brother,

IV. HECTOR MACKENZIE, fourth of Fairburn, who married, first,
his cousin Agnes, daughter of Wyland Chisholm, Kinkell, with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir, who succeeded and five daughters, who
married respectively, Roderick, son of Bayne of Tulloch, and
secondly, Angus, third son of Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch,
by Isobel Mackenzie of Coul another married Kenneth Mackenzie, I.
of Davochcairn, and, secondly, Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Achilty
the third married the Rev. Alexander Mackenzie, minister of
Lochcarron the fourth, Roderick, second son of Colin Mackenzie,
I. of Kincraig the fifth, the Rev. Alexander, third son of
the Rev. John Mackenzie of Tolly, by his second marriage with a
daughter of Thomas Fraser of Struy.

Hector married, secondly, a natural daughter of Alexander Mackenzie,
I. of Kilcoy, with issue - two sons and three daughters.

Hector was succeeded by his only son, by his first wife,

V. RODERICK MACKENZIE, fifth of Fairburn, who first married a
daughter of Patrick Grant of Glenmoriston, with issue - Mary, who
married as his second wife, Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Ballone,
with issue. He married, secondly, in 1663, Margaret, daughter of
Donald Mackenzie, III. of Loggie, with issue -

1. Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2. John, of Bishop-Kinkell, who was married twice, with issue - three
sons and two daughters.

3. Colin, who died without issue.

4. Donald, married, with issue - a son Murdoch.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, sixth of Fairburn, who in 1673 married
Isobel, daughter of the Hon. Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn, with
issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Kenneth, who died unmarried in 1731.

3. George and 4. James, both unmarried.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

VII. RODERICK MACKENZIE, seventh of Fairburn, who in 1712 married
Winniewood, daughter of William Mackintosh, Younger of Borlum,
with issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Kenneth, who married Ann MacRae, with issue.

3. Colin, of whom nothing is known.

4. Helen, who married John, eldest son of Colin, IX. of Hilton,
who died before his father in 1751, without issue.

Roderick was succeeded by his eldest son,

VIII. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, eighth of Fairburn, to whom the
estates, which had been forfeited in 1715, were restored in 1731.
He married Jean, eldest daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, VIII.
of Davochmaluag, with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Kenneth, Lieutenant 21st Regiment, who was killed under General
Burgoyne at Saratoga, unmarried, in September 1777.

Alexander was succeeded by his eldest son,

IX. RODERICK MACKENZIE, ninth of Fairburn, who in 1768 married
Catharine, daughter of William Baillie of Rosehall, with issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. William, who died without issue.

3. Mary, who married James Massey, without issue. She married
secondly, Colonel Robert Murray Macgrigor, with issue - Janetta
Catharine, who married, first, Robert Sutherland, and secondly,
Lieutenant Hull and Barbara, who married Richard Hort, Royal
Horse Guards Blue, with issue.

4. Barbara, who married, first, Kenneth Murchison of Tarradale,
with issue - the late Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, President of
the Royal Geographical Society, who married a daughter of General
Hugonin, without issue and the Hon. Kenneth Murchison.

Roderick was succeeded by his eldest son,

X. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, tenth of Fairburn, Major-General in the
Army. He was created a Baronet. He died unmarried, the last
direct heir male of the family, and was buried in the St. Clement's
aisle of the old Church of Dingwall.


THE MACKENZIES OF KERNSARY.

THIS family is descended from the Mackenzies of Fair-burn, the last
of the male line of the original Kernsary Mackenzies having, as
already shown, been killed at the battle of Auldearn in 1645,
when his sister carried the lineal representation of that family
to the Mackenzies of Sand.

The descent of the second family is as follows - Murdoch Mackenzie,
I. of Fairburn, married as his second wife Mary, daughter of
Roderick MacFarquhar Maclean, with issue along with two other sons
and daughters -

RODERICK MACKENZIE of Knockbaxter, in the vicinity of Dingwall.
He married Aegidia, daughter of Bayne of Tulloch (sasine 1636),
with issue - (1) the Rev. Murdoch Mackenzie, who married a daughter
of MacCulloch of Park (2) Kenneth, who married a daughter of the
Rev. John Mackenzie, Cromarty and (3)-

I. THE REV. RODERICK MACKENZIE, who was minister of Gairloch
from 1649 to 1710. Sir James Dixon Mackenzie of Findon says
distinctly that Roderick was "ancestor of Kernsary," ["Genealogical
Tables of the Mackenzies," Sheet 5.] and there appears to be no
doubt about it. But it is not at all clear whether he or his
brother Kenneth bought the estate from the Mackenzies of Coul,
who then owned it. Mr John H. Dixon, in his interesting book on
Gairloch, says that Roderick had a son Kenneth, born about 1703,
by a sister of the Laird of Knockbain, but if there was such a son,
which is highly improbable, he could not have been the purchaser
of any property during his father's lifetime, who died seven
years after Kenneth's alleged birth, when the father must have
been very advanced in years - close upon eighty. The probability
therefore is that Roderick's brother Kenneth - who, like himself,
during a portion of his ministry was an Episcopalian clergyman - was
the purchaser and that he died, without issue, before his brother,
and left the estate to Roderick, who died in 1710, or perhaps
to his eldest son Murdoch, who, in his marriage contract, dated
1708, two years before his father's death, is designated "of
Kernsary." Mr Dixon has several references to these men, but
being traditional they are more or less unreliable and as yet no
papers have been discovered which throw any light on the original
purchase by this family.

Writing about their immediate progenitor Mr Dixon says - "In 1649
the Rev. Roderick Mackenzie, third son of Roderick Mackenzie of
Knockbackster, was admitted minister of Gairloch and continued so
until his death in March 1710, after an incumbency of sixty-one
years. He seems to have been a man of quiet easy-going temperament.
When he came to Gairloch, Presbyterianism ruled when Episcopacy
was established in 1660, he conformed and when the Revolution put
an end to Episcopacy, he became a Presbyterian again." But that
he never was a very enthusiastic one is clear from the Presbytery
records during his incumbency, for they show that he seldom
attended its meetings, though often specially cited by his brethren
to do so. His brother Kenneth, who appears to have continued
an Episcopalian all his life, was of a very different stamp. He
seems to have spent a considerable portion of his early life in the
Island of Bute, to which apparently he became very much attached,
for when he left it and went to reside with his brother at Kernsary,
probably as purchaser and proprietor of the estate, he took a smack
load of Bute soil along with him in order that he might be buried
in it when he died. A portion of this imported earth "was put
into the Inverewe Church, so that when Kenneth was buried there
he might lie beneath Bute soil the overplus was deposited in
the garden of Kirkton house, where the heap is still preserved."
[Dixon's "Gairloch."] The same writer states distinctly that Kenneth
came from Bute, that he was the actual purchaser of the estate,
that he resided in the proprietor's house at Kirkton, that
he officiated in the old church there, some remains of which are
still to be seen, and, he adds - "a loose stone may be seen in the
part of the ruined church which was used as the burial place of
the Kernsary family it is inscribed 'K M K 1678' and is believed
to have recorded the date when the Rev. Kenneth built or restored
the little church." But is it not much more likely to record
the date of Kenneth's own death? Mr Dixon may be correct in
the assumption that Kenneth, who was a sincere Episcopalian, had
to leave Bute during the troubles of the Covenanting period, and
seek a safe refuge in his brother's parish, who very probably had
no objection to preaching in his church according to the Episcopal
form to which he had himself openly conformed not many years before.
Indeed, after the Revolution, in 1680, the Rev. Roderick, who had
for twenty years been the Episcopalian minister of the parish,
was allowed to remain in his charge until his death thirty years
after without submitting himself to the Presbytery, and most
amusing accounts are given of the manner in which his Presbyterian
successor was opposed on his induction and afterwards persecuted
by the Gairloch Episcopalians.

There appears to be no doubt that the Rev. Kenneth died before
his brother Roderick, minister of Gairloch, and left the estate
of Kernsary either to him or his eldest son, Murdoch, who, as
already stated, is described in 1708, two years before his father's
death, as then of Kernsary." It has been shown that the estate
was purchased by this family from the Mackenzies of Coul, and there
is a sasine, dated the 27th of July, 1762, on a precept of "clare
constat," granted by Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Coul in favour of
Roderick Mackenzie, IV. of Kernsary, as nearest heir male to his
grandfather.

The Rev. Roderick Mackenzie, minister of Gairloch married a daughter
of Bayne of Knockbain, his father's neighbour, with issue, among
several other sons, -

II. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, second of Kernsary, who married, first,
his cousin, a daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Fairburn,
without male issue.

He married, secondly, Anna, eldest daughter of Charles Mackenzie,
I. of Letterewe (marriage contract 1708), with issue -

III. RODERICK MACKENZIE, third of Kernsary, who as her second
husband married Margaret, youngest daughter of Alexander Mackenzie,
III. of Ballone (sasine to her in 1742), by his wife Barbara,
daughter of Kenneth Mor Mackenzie, I. of Dundonnel, and niece of
Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Hector, who died without issue.

3. Ann, who married George Mackenzie of Kildonan, third son of
James, brother of George Mackenzie, II. of Ardloch, with issue - a
son James.

4. Mary, who married John Ross, Inverness.

Roderick was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. RODERICK MACKENZIE, fourth of Kernsary, who married his cousin
Mary, eldest daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, IV. of Ballone, by
his wife, Catherine, daughter of George Mackenzie, II. of Gruinard.
She was celebrated for her great beauty, and was immortalised as
"Mali chruinn donn" in one of the best songs in the Gaelic language,
composed by William Mackenzie, a native of Gairloch, better known
as "An Ceistear Crubach," or the Lame Catechist. By her Roderick
had issue -

V. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, fifth of Kernsary, who sold the property,
and leased the farm of Arcan, near Brahan. He married Mary, eldest
daughter of the Rev. Roderick Morrison, minister of Kintail, by
his wife Jean, daughter of Fraser of Culduthel, with issue -

1. Roderick, planter in Demerara, who died unmarried.

2. Alexander, now residing at Lincoln. He was twice married, and
has issue - a son and daughter.

3. The Rev. Hector, late minister of Moy, Inverness-shire. He
married Margaret, daughter of William Macleod, I. of Orbost, with
issue - an only son William, who married, with issue, and emigrated
to Canada.

4. Davidson, a squatter in Australia, married, with issue.

5. Wilhelmina, who married Alexander MacTavish, Town Clerk of
Inverness, with issue - (1) Alastair, who went to New Zealand and
there married Jeanie Halse, of Wellington, with issue - Alastair
Henry Hector and Elsie (2) William Tavish MacTavish,
Procurator-Fiscal for the Tam District of Ross and Cromarty (3)
Mary who married Ranald Macdonald of Morar, with issue and (4)
Catharine, who died unmarried.

6. Maria, residing at Inverness, unmarried.

7. Jean Fraser, who in 1844 married William Murray, tacksman
of Kilcoy, son of Francis Murray of Ardconnon Old Meldrum, with
issue - (1) Francis, an indigo planter in Kurnoul, Tirhoot, who
married, in 1875 Eliza Annabella, daughter of John Mackenzie,
Teetwarpore, Tirhoot, with issue - Francis Mackenzie, Walter William
Macdonald, Jean Fraser, Gertrude Mary, Florence Wilhelmina, and
Lisette Julia (2) William, tacksman of Bellfield, North Kessock
(3) Alexander, a fruit-grower in Australia, and editor of the
Mildewa Irrigationist. He marred Catherine, daughter of William
Mackenzie, C,E., New South Wales (4) Robert Davidson, Surgeon-Major
Bengal Army. He married Mary, daughter of Surgeon-General Mackay,
Madras Army, of the family of Bighouse, with issue. (5) James,
M.D., practising in Inverness. He married Cecil, daughter of
John Scott, S.S.C., Toronto, with issue - two daughters, Violet
Cecil, and Janetta. (6) Edward Mackenzie, an indigo planter at
Mungulghur Tirhoot, who in 1893 married Annie Isabel Kingsburgh,
second daughter of General John Macdonald, Cheltenham,
great-great-grandson of the famous Flora Macdonald. (7) Alfred
Aberdein, an indigo planter in Tirhoot. He married Kathleen,
daughter of John Fraser Mackenzie of Belsund, Tirhoot, with issue - a
son Colin. (8) Mary Jane Elsie, who on the 5th of December,
1883, married John Hamilton Fasson, Bengal Civil Service, with
issue - Herbert, born in 1885 Elsie Isabel and Hilda. (9) Isabella
Leslie.


THE MACKENZIES OF KILLICHRIST, SUDDIE, AND ORD.

KENNETH, VII. of Kintail, had a fourth son by his second marriage
with Agnes of Lovat, from whom descended the families of Suddie,
Inverlael, Little Findon, Ord, Langwell, Highfield, and several
minor branches. The three first named being long extinct in
the male line, it is needless to enter further into detail than
is necessary to show their intermarriages with other Mackenzie
families. The progenitor of these branches was known as

I. KENNETH MACKENZIE, first of Killichrist. He was Priest of
Avoch, Chaunter of Ross, and perpetual Curate and Vicar of Coirbents,
or Conventh. He resigned this vicarage into the hands of Pope
Paulus in favour of the Priory of Beauly. There is a presentation
by James, Bishop of Moray, to Mr Kenneth Mackenzie, of the vicarage
of Conventh, dated June 27, 1518. ["Antiquarian Notes," p. 100] He
has a charter of the lands of Suddie from James V. in 1526. He
would not refrain from marriage, notwithstanding the orders of
the Roman Church promulgated some time previously, and the Bishop
attempted to depose him with the result described at pp. 107-108.
He married Helen, daughter of Robert Loval of Balumbie, Forfarshire
his brother, John of Killin, IX. of Kintail, and his wife's father
being parties to the contract of marriage, dated 1539, by which
it was agreed that in case of his decease before her she is to
have an annuity of 600 merks Scots and other perquisites. By her
Kenneth had issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Thomas, of Kinlochluichart, afterwards I. of Ord.

3. John Caol, or Slender, who married, with issue.

4. Roderick, who married, with issue - Alexander and John, and
a daughter, who married, first, a Mr Macdonald and secondly, the
Rev. Kenneth Mackenzie, of the Torridon family, minister of Sleat,
Isle of Skye.

Kenneth was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, second of Killichrist, who, in 1571,
obtained a charter from James VI. of the lands of Suddie, which
had been granted to his father in 1526 by James V. He married
Agnes, only child of Roderick Mackenzie, third son of Allan, II.
of Hilton, with issue -

1. Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2. John, Archdean of Ross, I. of Inverlael, who married Margaret,
daughter of William Innes of Culrossie, and had a son, Kenneth,
II. of Inverlael, who married Agnes, daughter of William Fraser,
V. of Culbokie (sasine on marriage contract in 1629), without
issue male, and the Rev. Thomas, also Archdean of Ross, III. of
Inverlael. Thomas married Agnes, daughter of Hector Douglas of
Muldearg, with issue - John, who succeeded as IV. of Inverlael,
and Thomas, a W.S. in Edinburgh, who died unmarried. John, IV.
of Inverlael, had three sons who died without issue, and a daughter,
who married Alexander Mackenzie of Towie. John, the Archdean,
I. of Inverlael, had a third son, Alexander, a W.S., who died
unmarried and a fourth, the Rev. James Mackenzie, minister of
Nigg, who married Mary, daughter of John Rose of Broadley, with
issue, from whom descended the late Right Hon. John Holt Mackenzie,
who married without issue and the late Joshua Henry Mackenzie
of Belmont, Lord of Justiciary, who married Helen Ann, youngest
daughter of Francis Humberston-Mackenzie, last Lord Seaforth,
with issue - two daughters, Frances Mary and Penuel Augusta.

3. Murdoch, I. of Little Findon, who married Margaret, daughter
of Murdoch, second son of John Mackenzie, I. of Loggie, with
issue - John, II. of Little Findon.

4. Kenneth, of whom nothing is known.

5. Alexander, a natural son, Colonel in the army, and Governor
of Tangiers. He had also by a German lady two sons in the French
army, and two daughters, one of whom, Penelope, married Allan
Macdonald, XIX of Clanranald, killed at Sheriffmuir in 1715,
without issue.

Alexander died in 1575, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

III. KENNETH MACKENZIE, third of Killichrist, who married,
first, the widow of James Gray of Skibo, with issue - a daughter,
who married, first, John Dunbar of Avoch, and secondly, probably
as his second wife, Lachlan Mackintosh, VII. of Kyllachy. Kenneth
married, secondly, in 1605, Catharine, daughter of Roderick Mor
Mackenzie, I. of Redcastle (sasine of Suddie in 1607) with issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Margaret, who married Fraser, Tutor of Foyers.

He was succeeded by his only son, who became first of

I. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, first of Suddie. He served under
Gustavus Adolphus, and married Mary, daughter of Bruce of Airth,
with issue -

1. Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2. Colin, who married Janet, daughter of John Mackenzie, Ardcharnach
and Langwell, with issue - Alexander, an officer in the Horse Guards
Thomas, killed without issue, in the Scots Guards in Spain John,
a Lieutenant-Colonel in Collier's Regiment in Flanders and Colin,
in Lauder's Regiment, killed in Flanders, without issue.

3. Elizabeth, who married George Leslie, Sheriff-Clerk of Inverness,
with issue (sasine in 1653).

4. Agnes, who about 1630 married Roderick, sixth son of Alexander
Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, without issue.

5. Magdalen, who married Alexander Graham of Drynie, with issue.

Alexander has a sasine of Suddie in 1650, and another in 1672. He
was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. CAPTAIN KENNETH MACKENZIE, second of Suddie. He served
in Dumbarton's Regiment in France in 1666, and as a Royalist
Captain in Scotland. He married Isobel, daughter of John Paterson,
Bishop of Ross, with issue -

1. Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2. George, killed with Lord Mungo Murray at Darien.

3. Margaret, who married William Macleod of Bernera.

4. Elizabeth, married as his first wife, Colonel Alexander Mackenzie
of Conansbay, son of Kenneth Mor, third Earl of Seaforth, without
issue.

5. Alice, who married, first, in 1698, as his second wife, John
Macdonald of Balcony, son of Sir James Macdonald, IX. of Sleat
and secondly, John Maclean, M.D., Inverness.

He was killed at the battle of Mulroy in Lochaber in 1688, [Scott
gives the following account of Captain Mackenzie's death - "He was
brave, and well-armed with carabine, pistols, and a halbert or
half-pike. This officer came in front of a cadet of Keppoch, called
Macdonald of Tullich, and by a shot aimed at him, killed one of
his brothers, and then rushed on with his pike. Notwithstanding
his deep provocation, Tullich, sensible of the pretext which the
death of a Captain under Government would give against his clan,
called out more than once, 'Avoid me, avoid me.' 'The Macdonald
was never born that I would shun,' replied Mackenzie, pressing on
with his pike on which Tullich hurled at his head a pistol, which
he had before discharged. The blow took effect, the skull was
fractured, and Mackenzie died shortly after, as his soldiers were
carrying him to Inverness." - "Tales of a Grandfather."] and was
succeeded by his eldest son,

III. KENNETH MACKENZIE, third of Suddie, who, in 1706 married
Katharine, daughter of John Shaw of Sornbeg, Ayrshire, with issue -

1. William, his heir and successor.

2. John, Lieutenant-Colonel in the army.

3. Mary, who married General Norman Macleod, XXII. of Macleod,
with issue.

4. Agnes, who married Lachlan Mackintosh of Kyllachy.

Kenneth has a sasine in 1695. He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. WILLIAM MACKENZIE, fourth and last of Suddie, who married
Margaret, second daughter of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Baronet, and
V. of Coul, with issue -

1. Alexander, who died before his father, without issue.

2. John Randoll Mackenzie, Major-General in the army, killed at
Talavera in 1809, without issue.

3. Janet and 4. Katharine, who both died without issue.

5. Henrietta Wharton, who in 1810 became her father's heir, and
married, as her second husband, Sir James Wemyss, fifth Baronet
and VIII. of Scatwell, M.P., Lord-Lieutenant for the County of
Ross, to whom she carried the Suddie estates, and had issue - Sir
James John Randoll Mackenzie, sixth Baronet and last of Scatwell,
who, about 1850 sold or alienated the estates.

KENNETH, first of Killichrist fourth son of Kenneth Mackenzie,
VII. of Kintail, had, as already shown, a second son, Thomas
of Lochluichart, who, in 1598, obtained from Kenneth, XII. and
afterwards first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, a tack of the lands
of Ord. Thomas married, first, Isobel, a daughter of Roderick
MacAllan Macleod of Gairloch, with issue -

1. Murdoch Mackenzie of Scatwell, who married Catherine, daughter
of Alastair Roy Mac Eachainn, without issue. In 1619, he talzied
the estate of Scatwell to his foster-brother, Kenneth Mackenzie,
I. of Scatwell, son of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Coigeach, Tutor
of Kintail.

2. Kenneth, progenitor of the Mackenzies of Langwell, whose
present representatives are in Australia and of Mackenzie-Ross
of Aldie, who adopted the additional name of Ross on succeeding
to that property.

Thomas of Lochluichart married, secondly, Annabella, daughter of
Murdoch Mackenzie, I. of Fairburn, with issue -

3. John, who afterwards obtained a charter of Ord.

4. Thomas, who married a daughter of the Laird of Katewell, with
issue - two sons, John of Wester Kessock, who married Margaret
Maclean, and another son, who died unmarried, in 1642. Thomas
died before 1628.

5. Murdoch, servitor to the Tutor of Kintail, who died unmarried,
in 1628. This Murdoch, by his last will, dated 13th January,
1628, left his brother-german, John Mackenzie of Ord, executor
and legatee, and bequeathed 400 merks Scots and fiffteen boils
victual or the value thereof to the children of his late brother
Thomas. He also left three hundred and twenty-one merks Scots
to Thomas Graham, his sister's son, and the annual rent of one
thousand merks to Isobel Cuthbert, wife of his said brother and
executor, and discharged his sisters of all the monies they borrowed
from him.

Thomas of Lochluichart died before 1619. His eldest son,

I. JOHN MACKENZIE, was the first of the family who possessed Ord
and was designed thereof, though it was previously held in tack by
his father. John was locally called "Ian Dubh a Ghiuthais," or
Black John of the Fir. He obtained a charter from Kenneth, XIIth
Baron and first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, of the lands and mill
of Ord, and the half of Corrievoulzie and Strathvaich, dated 23rd
July, 1607, and on the 15th of September, 1637, George second Earl
of Seaforth granted him a regular free charter of the whole.

John married Isobel, daughter of Alexander Cuthbert of Drakies,
by his wife Christian Dunbar, who long survived him, with issue -

1. John, his heir and successor.

2. Thomas, from whom the Mackenzies of Highfield.

3. James, who married a daughter of the Rev. Farquhar Clark. He
is cautioner, with his brother Kenneth of Ord, for Thomas Mackenzie,
III. of Inverlael, from which he is discharged on the 18th of May,
1659. He is witness to the registration of the marriage contract
of his brother John, at Inverness, on the 20th of February, 1666.

4. George, who married, first, a natural daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, and secondly, Janet, daughter of the
Rev. Mr Linen, minister of Fairnly, with issue - one son, Alexander,
who joined the Darien expedition, and afterwards settled and
married in Jamaica, where his posterity still flourish.

5. A daughter, who married Mackenzie of Tarradale.

6. Annabella, who in 1650 married Alexander Mackenzie, VI. of
Hilton.

7. Janet, who, in 1652 married Alexander Cam, fourth son
of Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, with issue - Roderick and
Alexander, Mic Alastair Chaim, the author's ancestors. Two daughters
married respectively a son of the Rev. John Clark, minister of
Lochalsh, and Murdo Mackenzie Mhic Mhurchaidh.

John witnessed the burning of the Church of Killichrist by the
Macdonalds of Glengarry in 1602. He died before the 1st of December,
1644, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. CAPTAIN JOHN MACKENZIE, second of Ord. He fought under
Montrose against the Covenanters, and was in consequence summoned
to appear before the Presbytery of Dingwall on the 5th of March,
1650, as a Malignant. He confessed to have been at the head
of a Company at Balvenny, professed his grief and desired to be
received to the Covenant and public satisfaction.

He was ultimately ordained on the 19th of November, 1650, "to
make his repentance to James Graham's unnatural rebellion, the
unlawful engagements, and the late insurrection in the North, in
the kirk of Dingwall, in his own habits, the next Sabbath, and
to be received, and to subscribe the Declaration." On the 13th
of October, 1653, he is appointed to take charge of the Earl of
Seaforth's forest of Fannich, for which he is to receive a certain
number of boils victual yearly. On the 22nd of April, 1655, he
is tried by Court Martial in Edinburgh, for plundering the lands
of Fowlis on the 9th of November preceding, found guilty, and
sentenced to repair the damage to the extent proved, out of his
lands of Ord, and to be committed to prison until the General's
pleasure should be known thereon.

He married Magdalen, daughter of William Fraser of Culbokie (marriage
contract 21st July, 1633 tocher 2500 merks Scots) with issue -

1. Thomas, his heir and successor,

2. Kenneth, who is witness to a bond, dated 27th of April, 1724,
by Thomas Mackenzie of Ord, and his eldest son, Alexander, in favour
of John Mackenzie of Highfield. He married, in 1702, Elizabeth,
daughter of Assynt, with issue - one son, Kenneth.

3. Annabella, who married on the 28th of April, 1698, Charles
Maclean, Brae.

4. Helen, who married on the 25th of April, 1700, James Murray,
Culloden.

5. Janet, who married Donald Macdonald, South Uist (marriage
contract 1711).

6. Florence, married Kenneth Mackenzie, Kenlochewe.

Captain John died before the 19th of February, 1686, and was
succeeded by his eldest son,

III. THOMAS MACKENZIE, third of Ord. On the 6th and 8th of March,
1697, he redeemed the wadset of Corrievoulzie, duly and lawfully
premonishing and warning John Mackenzie, indweller in Wester
Kessock, and Margaret Maclean, his spouse, to repair to the
Tolbooth of Fortrose, commonly called the Charter house, on the
15th of May next, and there any time betwixt the sun rising and
the down passing of the same, to receive from Thomas Mackenzie
of Ord, or any other in his name, the sum of fifty thousand merks
Scots, whole and together in one sum, all copper and lay-money
excepted, and upon receipt thereof to deliver up the Wadset
of Corrievoulzie, etc., to him. On the 23rd of August, 1716, he
entered into an obligation with Kenneth Bayne of Tulloch and John
Mackenzie of Highfield, by which, upon their satisfying Colin Graham
of Drynie for a debt contracted between that gentleman and Ord,
the latter is to make an ample disposition to them and their
heirs, of all his lands lying within the Sheriffdom of Ross, with
reversion always, during all the days of his life, of the sum of
one hundred and twenty merks Scots, five bolls of bear, five bolls
of malt, five bolls of oatmeal, five bolls of bear meal yearly,
out of the rents of said lands and it was specially provided that
as soon as the sum of four thousand merks Scots was paid by Kenneth
Bayne and John Mackenzie, they should be obliged to give the said
Thomas Mackenzie one chaldron of victual, or one hundred merks
Scots yearly, over and above the reservation above-mentioned.

He married Mary, daughter of John Mackenzie, II. of Applecross.
with issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Magdalen, who married William Mackenzie, son of Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, II. of Coul (marriage contract 18th July 1716).

He was succeeded by his only son,

IV. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, fourth of Ord, who before the 29th
of June, 1723, married Jean, daughter of John Mackenzie, II. of
Highfield, with issue -

1. Thomas, his heir and successor.

He died before the 10th of October, 1748, and was succeeded by his
only son,

V. THOMAS MACKENZIE, fifth of Ord. He was educated at Fortrose,
and married Ann, youngest daughter of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, first
Baronet and IV. of Scatwell (marriage contract 15th of June, 1730).
She had a jointure, in case of her surviving him, of five chalders
of victual rent, and three hundred merks Scots yearly, namely, three
chalders of victual out of the lands of Broomhill, Ballavulaich,
and Milltown of Ord, two chalders of the first and readiest of
the rents of the Mill of Ord, and three hundred merks out of the
lands of Corrievoulzie, Strathvaich, Stronchondrum, and Bruthach-nam-Bo.
By her he had issue -

1. Alexander, his heir and successor.

2. Elizabeth, who married Alexander, only son of George Gillanders
of Highfield, Chamberlain to Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth (marriage
contract 17th April, 1777), with issue.

3. Abigail, who married George Mackenzie, IV. of Dundonnel, with
issue.

Thomas died in 1803, and was succeeded by his only son,

VI. ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, sixth of Ord, who, during his father's
lifetime, was, by deed of settlement of Katharine Bethune and Alexander
Macdonald, her husband, dated 3rd December, 1785, appointed sole
executor to Macdonald's only child Kenneth, whom failing, the said
Alexander Mackenzie, younger of Ord, to be sole heir, "and this
as a token of gratitude to the worthy family of Ord." Alexander
married Helen, daughter of Neil Macinnes, Collector of Taxes,
Aberdeen, with issue -

1. John, who died before his father, unmarried.

2. Thomas, who became his heir and successor.

3. Alexander, Captain in the 25th Regiment, Native Infantry,
H.E.I.C.S., who married Hannah Fraser, daughter of James Fraser
of Belladrum, with issue - (1) Alexander, H.E.I.C.S., who married
a daughter of Colonel Birch, with issue - four sons and four
daughters (2) Charles-Archdale, in the Army, and three daughters,
Helen, Emilia, and Anna. He died in India on the 15th of June,
1837.

4. Anne, who married her cousin, Thomas Mackenzie, VI. and last
of the Old Mackenzies of Dundonnel.

5. Margaret, who married John Maclean, Granada, with issue - an
only daughter, Helen.

6. and 7. Eliza and Helen, both of whom died unmarried.

Alexander died in 1820 and was succeeded by his eldest surviving
son,

VII. THOMAS MACKENZIE, seventh of Ord, Vice-Lieutenant of the
County of Ross. He was born in December 1797, and married, on
the 27th of April, 1825, Anna Watson, second daughter of James
Fowler of Raddery, and Grange in Jamaica, with issue - an only
son, who in 1880, succeeded his father as

VIII. ALEXANDER WATSON MACKENZIE, eighth of Ord. He was born
on the 31st of August, 1827, and was a Captain in the 91st Regiment.
He married on the 10th of June, 1857, Angel-Babington, daughter
of the Rev. Benjamin Peile, of Hatfield, Herts, with issue -

1. Thomas Arthur, born on the 17th of September, 1859, Captain
79th Cameron Highlanders. He first joined the 42nd Regiment but
was transferred in 1880 to the 79th Cameron Highlanders. He served
in the Egyptian War and was present at the battle of Tel-el-Kebir,
for which he has a medal and clasp and the Khedive Star. He
obtained his Captaincy on the 16th of January, 1885. He was for
several years Adjutant of the 79th and is one of the editors of
"The Historical Records" of that Regiment, published in 1887.

2. Alexander Francis, who was born on the 18th of April, 1861,
Captain 93rd Highlanders.

3. Beatrice Anna, who in 1887 married Robert Scarlett, son of
the late John Fraser of Bunchrew, with issue - John Ord Alastair
Gladys Frances and Evelyn Robert Leopold.


THE MACKENZIES OF HIGHFIELD.

I. THOMAS MACKENZIE, first of this family, was the second son
of John Mackenzie, I. of Ord, by Isobel, daughter of Alexander
Cuthbert of Drakies. He married Agnes, daughter of Murdoch Matheson
of Balmacarra, with issue -

1. John, his heir and successor.

2. Lachlan, who married Mary Macdonald of Tighchruic, with issue.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. JOHN MACKENZIE, second of Highfield (sasine in 1730), who
married Margaret, daughter of James Maclean, a Bailie of Inverness,
with issue -

1. Thomas, who died before his father, without issue.

2. James, who became his heir and successor.

3. Colin, of Meikle-Scatwell, who married Catharine, daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie of Lentran, without issue.

4. William of Strathgarve, who married Janet, daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie of Lentran (sasine of lands in 1747), with issue - John,
II of Strathgarve, and Alexander, who died without issue. John
married and had issue - William, III. of Strathgarve, and three
daughters. William married a daughter of Dr Mackenzie, practising
as a surgeon in Edinburgh, with issue - a son John, whose issue,
if any, are unknown and William, who died in India without issue.

5. Elizabeth, who in 1716, married Donald Mackenzie, V. of Kilcoy,
with issue.

6. Jean, who married Alexander Mackenzie, IV. of Ord, with issue.

7. Catharine, who in 1747, married Robert Ross of Achnacloich.

He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

III. JAMES MACKENZIE, third of Highfield, who married Mary,
daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, IV. of Applecross, with issue -

1. Thomas, his heir and successor.

2. William, who died unmarried.

3. Alexander, who died young.

4. John, who died unmarried.

5. Alexander, of Breda, Aberdeenshire, who married Maria Rebecca,
daughter of Colonel William Humberston Mackenzie of Conansbay,
and sister of the last Lord Seaforth, with issue - (1) William,
a Lieutenant in the 78th Regiment, died at Breda in Holland of a
wound he had received the previous day at the taking of Merxem,
in 1814 (2) Thomas, a midshipman, R.N., drowned at sea (3)
Frederick, R.N., murdered at Calcutta, in 1820 (4) Francis, R.N.,
drowned at sea in 1828 (5) John, all without issue and (6)
Alexander, Captain, 25th Regiment, and Adjutant of the Ross-shire
Militia, who took a great interest in the history of his Clan
and collected a large amount of information and valuable MSS. He
married Lilias Dunbar, daughter of James Fowler of Raddery, with
issue - (1) James Evan Fowler, who died unmarried (2) Alexander, now
at Fortrose and three daughters, who died unmarried. Alexander
of Breda, who died in 1872, had also four daughters, two of
whom, Louisa and Gertrude Elizabeth, died unmarried Margaret,
who married the Rev. Charles Grant, minister of the Scottish
Episcopal Church at Meikle Folla, with issue - nine children. She
died in 1871. The youngest, Mary Gibbs, married on the 25th of
March, 1827, George Skues, Lieutenant Royal Marines, Aberdeen,
with issue - (1) William Mackenzie, M.D., Surgeon-Major in the Army,
who married Margaret, daughter of Christopher Hyre, Newfoundland,
with issue, three sons and five daughters - George Edward Mackenzie
Frederick William Mackenzie Charles Hyre Mackenzie Mary Isabella
Mackenzie Margaret Caroline Mackenzie Gertrude Eliza Mackenzie
Minnie Mackenzie, and Elsie Mackenzie (2) Edward Walker,
Staff-Surgeon in the Army, who died at Calcutta, unmarried, in
1862 (3) Frederick Mackenzie, Surgeon-Major in the Army, who
married Maria Theresa Malcolm, with issue - two sons, Frederic
Mackenzie and Edward George, and two daughters, Mary Theresa and
Margaret Sarah (4) Richard Alexander, residing in America (5)
John Richards (6) Georgina Mary, and two daughters who died in
infancy.

6. Margaret, who married Alexander Mackenzie, IV. of Muirton of
Kilcoy with issue.

7. Elizabeth, who in 1755 married Donald Matheson of Attadale,
with issue - from whom Sir Kenneth James Matheson, Baronet, now of
Lochalsh and Ardross.

8. Anne, who married James Rose of Cuilich, with issue and seven
other daughters who died unmarried.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. THOMAS MACKENZIE, fourth of Highfield, who afterwards
succeeded his uncle, John Mackenzie, as VI. of Applecross. He
obtained that estate from his maternal uncle, John, V. of Applecross.

In 1781 he sold Highfield to George Gillanders, commissioner for
Seaforth, and purchased Lochcarron from Sir Alexander Mackenzie
of Delvine for L10,000. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Donald
Mackenzie, V. of Kilcoy, with issue - John, VII. of Applecross, and
several others. (For his succession see Applecross Genealogy.)


THE MACKENZIES OF REDCASTLE.

I. RODERICK MOR MACKENZIE, progenitor of the family of
Redcastle, was third son of Kenneth Mackenzie X. of Kintail, by
Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John, second Earl of Athole. He was
a distinguished warrior, and took a prominent part in the frequent
encounters between the Mackenzies and the Macdonalds of Glengarry,
often commanding the Clan on these occasions. In 1608 he has a
charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Redcastle. He married
Florence, daughter of Robert Munro, XV. of Fowlis, with issue -

1. Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2. Colin, I. of Kincraig, of whom presently.

3. Isabel, who married Hugh Mackay of Bighouse, with issue.

4. Margaret, who married, as his first wife, Alexander Mackenzie,
V. of Gairloch, with issue.

5. Helen, who married Thomas Dunbar of Grange.

6. Catharine, who married, first, in 1605, Kenneth Mackenzie,
III. of Killichrist, with issue and secondly, Thomas Chisholm of
Kinneries, also with issue.

7. Agnes, who married John Dunbar of Bennetsfield.

8. Another, who married John Bayne of Tulloch.

Roderick Mor was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. MURDOCH MACKENZIE, second of Redcastle, who has a sasine
as heir to his father in 1615. He married Margaret, daughter of
William Rose, XI. of Kilravock (marriage contract 13th of June
1599 tocher 4500 merks), ["Kilravock Papers," p. 83.] with issue -

2. Roderick, his father's heir and successor.

3. Alexander, who married a daughter of William Paterson, with
issue - Roderick, who married a daughter of Mackenzie of Fairburn
William John Murdo Colin and two daughters, the elder of whom
married Roderick, son of Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Hilton, with
issue - Colin, who died without issue in 1682.

4. The Rev. John, who after he was ordained, was schoolmaster
at Chanonry, and died in 1640, unmarried.

5. William, M.D. at the Court of Spain, where he died, without
issue.

6. Margaret, who married Angus Chisholm, XVIII. of Chisholm,
without issue.

7. Finguala, who married Roderick Mackenzie, I. of Applecross,
with issue.

8. Catharine, who married Donald Mackenzie, III. of Loggie,
without issue.

Four other daughters married respectively, Alexander Fraser of
Reelig the Rev. William Mackenzie, minister of Tarbat Alexander
MacRae, Chamberlain of Kintail Fraser, son of Fraser of Foyers,
and secondly, Hugh, brother of Fraser of Culduthel. He had also
a natural daughter, who married John Mor Mackenzie, natural son
of William Mackenzie of Shieldaig, Gairloch.

Murdoch was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

III. RODERICK MACKENZIE, third of Redcastle. He has a sasine
in 1629 and in 1638. He was fined L2000 for taking part in the
wars of Montrose against the Covenanters, and was for some time
imprisoned in Edinburgh along with Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine.
During his imprisonment General Carr besieged his castle, the
only stronghold which still held out for the King killed the
commander, who exposed himself on the ramparts, set fire to the
castle, and razed its walls to the ground. He was liberated on
the intercession of his maternal uncle on payment of 7000 merks
Scots. In 1690 he excambed with Kenneth Mackenzie, I. of Dundonnel,
formerly of Glenmarkassie, the lands of Acha-ta-Donill, Blachlach,
etc., belonging to Redcastle, for the davoch of Meikle Scatwell,
of old possessed by Allan and Alexander Mackenzie. He married
Isobel, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Kilcoy, with
issue -

1. Colin, his heir and successor.

2. Alexander, an Advocate, who died unmarried.

3. Charles, of whom nothing is known.

4. Anne, who married John Mackenzie, II. of Scatwell, with issue
- an only daughter, Lilias, who in 1679 married Colin Mackenzie,
III. of Kincraig, with issue.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. COLIN MACKENZIE, fourth of Redcastle, who was a very prudent
man and amassed a large fortune. In 1676 he made an entail of the
Barony of Redcastle, which, however, he neglected to register, a
fact only discovered long after his death. He married, first, the
eldest daughter of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, Baronet, I. of Coul,
with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Colin of Rossend, who married, with issue - Colin, W.S.,
and Charles, a goldsmith. He was out in the Rising of 1715, and
suffered much in consequence.

3. John, of whom there is no trace.

4. Jean, described on her tombstone in Tam as the eldest daughter.
She married, in 1679, John Urquhart of Newhall.

5. Margaret, who in 1680 married Alexander Fraser, Younger of
Belladrum.

6. Elizabeth, who in 1685 married Ewen Mackenzie, VII. of Hilton,
with issue.

7. Anna, who in 1687 married Lachlan Mackintosh of Daviot, with
issue.

Colin married, secondly, Marjory, daughter of John Robertson of
Inshes, widow of Angus Mackintosh of Daviot, without issue. He was
killed at Killearnan in 1704, when he was succeeded by his eldest
son,

V. RODERICK MACKENZIE, fifth of Redcastle, known among the Highlanders
as "Ruairi Dearg," or Red Rory. He wrote a MS. history of his
own family, and married Margaret, daughter of James Grant, XVI. of
Grant (sasine to her "as sister to Ludovic Grant nunc de Freuchy,"
in 1680), with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Ludovic, who married Eliza, daughter of Simon Mackenzie, I.
of Allangrange.

3. James, M.D., who practised his profession in London.

4. Alexander, who in 1721 married Margaret, daughter of Charles
Mackenzie of Cullen.

5. Isobel, who in 1718 married Aeneas Macbean, Younger of Kinchyle,
with issue.

6. Jean, who in 1712 married William Mackenzie of Davochcairn,
with issue.

7. Anne, who died unmarried.

Roderick married, secondly, Katharina, daughter of Charles Mackenzie
of Cullen.

He died in 1725, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI. RODERICK MACKENZIE, sixth of Redcastle, usually called
"Ruairi Mor," who married, first, in 1707, Margaret, daughter of
Sir James Calder of Muirton, widow of Alexander Dunbar of Westfield
(by whom she had seven sons and a daughter), with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Colin, who in 1748, married Mary, daughter of Sir John Cochrane
of Waterside, son of the Hon. Sir John Cochrane of Ochiltree,
second son of the first Earl of Dundonald, with issue - Kenneth
Francis, Advocate-General, President of the Council, and Acting
Governor of the Island of Granada, in the West Indies. He spent
L25,000 of his own money in defending the island successfully
against the French, for which Pitt offered him a Baronetcy, which he
declined. Colin had also two daughters - Rose, who married John
Wilson, and Margaret, who married Gilbert Robertson of Kindeace.
Kenneth Francis married Anne Townshend. She died in 1847. He
died in 1831, aged 83, and left issue - (1) Charles, who married
Rebecca Molyneux, with issue - Charles, who married Lucie de Momet,
with issue - a son, Charles. He died in New York in 1865. (2)
James Joseph, who married Marian, daughter of Edward Impey,
B.C.S., and died without issue in 1872 (3) Kenneth, who died,
without issue (4) Colin, Lieutenant-General, C.B., 48th Regiment,
Madras Army, Brigadier Commanding, Commissioner Southern Division
Nizam Dominions, and Governor General's agent at Murshedabad in
1843. He was, in 1844, Assistant Political Agent at Peshawur, and
afterwards for a time a hostage with the Afghans. He married,
first, on the 26th of May, 1832, Adeline Marian, daughter of James
Pattle, Bengal Civil Service, with issue - Adeline Anne, who married
Major-General Henry Hoseason, Madras Army, with issue - eight
children Mary Julia, who married Major Herbert Clogstorm, with
issue - four children Rose Prinsep, who married, first, Lieutenant
David Arnot, and secondly, Captain Francis Pictet, Madras Army,
with issue - six children (5) Anne (6) Isabella Jessy, who
married, on the 17th of October, 1839, James Baines of Ludlow,
with issue (7) Mary Cochrane, who on the 17th of March, 1835,
married James King of Staunton Park, Herts, for twenty years
M.P. for Hereford, with issue - three sons and seven daughters
(8) Eliza Margaret, who on the 15th of August, 1832, married
Major-General Thomas D. Carpenter, Madras Army, with issue (9)
Amelia Frances, who in 1838 married her brother-in-law, the Rev.
Thomas King of Staunton Park, Herts, with issue and (10) Townshend,
who died without issue. Lieutenant-General Colin married,
secondly, in 1843, Helen Catharine, daughter of Admiral John
Erskine Douglas, of the Queensberry family, without issue, and
died in 1881.

Roderick Mor had twelve other sons and two daughters, of whose
history very little is known. One of the sons, either John or
William, married, with issue - at least two sons - the Rev. Hugh
Mackenzie, who was born in 1771, and was for fourteen years Baptist
minister at St. Ives, where he died and was buried in 1836. Hugh
married, with issue - a son and daughter, both without issue. The
second son, ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, was born in 1772, and married in
1795. Helen, daughter of John Donaldson, Dunfermline, factor for the
Earl of Dundonald, with issue - (1) William, who was born in 1797
and died in infancy (2) JOHN DONALDSON MACKENZIE, surgeon, who
was born in 1803, and practised his profession in Jersey. He
married, in 1840, Emma Caroline, daughter of John Landseer, and
sister of the eminent painter, Sir Edwin Landseer, with issue -
Edwin John Landseer Mackenzie, of Kensington Park Gardens, London,
who was born in 1843 and Landseer Mackenzie, of St. Bernard,
Bournemouth, born in 1849. (3) Alexander, who was born in 1806, and
died young in 1822 (4) David Donaldson, born in 1811, and died
unmarried in 1836 (5) Margaret Donaldson, who was born in 1799,
married James Symington, banker, and died in 1863, without
surviving issue (6) Helen, born in 1801, died in 1802 (7) Mary
Anne, born in 1808, and died young in 1823 and (8) Jane Donaldson,
who, in 1840, married Andrew Armstrong Kerr, banker, Edinburgh, with
issue - Robert, who, born in 1843, became a Judge in Jamaica,
married, with issue, and died in 1884 Alexander Charles, born
in 1847, married, with issue Andrew William, who, born in 1848,
married, without issue Henry Francis, born in 1855, married,
with issue Frederick Ebenezer, born in 1858, and died in infancy.
Helen Alexandrina, who married Francis Suther Melville, Edinburgh,
Depute Clerk of Session and Registrar of Law Agents in Scotland,
with issue Jane and Margaret Jessie, who died young in 1868.
William Mackenzie had also a daughter Margaret, who married (and
died in 1832) John Fraser of Honduras, with issue - a son, John,
and a daughter, Catherine, who, in 1834, married William Napier,
of Bathurst, New Brunswick, without issue. Alexander died in
1841.

Roderick Mor died on the 29th of March, 1751, at Redcastle, and
was succeeded by his eldest son,

VII. RODERICK MACKENZIE, seventh of Redcastle, known among his
countrymen as "Ruairi Ban." He married in 1730, Hannah Anna
Murdoch of Cambodden, Galloway, with issue -

1. Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2. Captain John, who by the will of the then proprietor, he having
had no son of his own to leave it to, succeeded as VI. of Kincraig.

3. and 4. Alexander and Roderick, died in infancy.

5. Margaret, who on the 29th of November, 1755, married Sir
Alexander Mackenzie, third Baronet and X. of Gairloch, with issue.
She died on the 1st of September, 1759.

6. Mary who was born in 1732, and died, unmarried, at Lettoch,
Redcastle, in 1828, aged 96 years.

7. Elizabeth, who was born in 1746, and married in August 1782,
Major-General Colin Mackenzie, with issue - Alexander Wedderburn,
who died, unmarried, on the 4th of January, 1838, at Park House,
Dingwall and Hannah Margaret Cochrane, who died, unmarried, on
the 2nd of February 1858, at Golder's Green, Hendon.

8. Christina, who was born in 1749.

9. Jean, who was born in 1752, married Robert Anderson, Glasgow,
and died, in 1819, without issue.

Roderick's wife died at Redcastle on the 21st of April, 1755, in
the 39th year of her age. He died at Inverness on the 10th of
May 1785, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

VIII. CAPTAIN KENNETH MACKENZIE, eighth of Redcastle. He
was born on the 21st of February, 1748, and married at Edinburgh,
on the 17th of August, 1767, Jean, daughter of James Thomson,
Accountant-General of Excise in Scotland, with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Hector, who married at Edinburgh, on the 29th of March, 1800,
Diana Davidson, daughter of Dr Davidson of the H.E.I.C.S., Leeds,
with issue--Robert Davidson Mackenzie, Adjutant 1st Bombay Light
Cavalry, who died of cholera on the 22nd of December, 1822, at
Sholapore, India, without issue. She died at Garlieston in 1852.

3. Boyd, who married William MacCall of Newton-Stewart, without
issue.

4. Hanna, who was the last surviving child of Kenneth, of Redcastle,
married William MacCa, of Barnshalloch, and died atCreebridge,
Newton-Stewart, on the 8th of August, 1849, aged 83 years.

Captain Kenneth was tried for the murder of Kenneth Mackenzie, "alias"
Jefferson. He was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, but
was afterwards pardoned. He divorced his wife went abroad entered
the Russian service and was killed in 1789 near Constantinople,
where he was Assistant Consul, in a duel with Captain Smith, master
of a merchant ship, to whom he had entrusted all his property
when he had got into trouble about Jefferson. He figures in
Kay's Edinburgh portraits as one of the Bucks of the City.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IX. RODERICK MACKENZIE, ninth of Redcastle. He never took
possession. The estate, being encumbered, he sold it in June,
1790, to James Grant of Corriemony, for L25,450, whose nephew,
Patrick Grant, sold it in 1828 to Sir William Fettes of Comely
Bank, Bart., for L133,000. Sir William's trustees re-sold it to
Colonel Hugh D. Baillie, whose relative, James Evan Bruce Baillie
of Dochfour, now possesses it.

This Roderick, the last direct male representative of the House
of Redcastle, died in 1798, in Jamaica, unmarried, when the
representation of the family devolved upon his uncle, Captain
John Mackenzie, VI. of Kincraig, of whom next.


THE MACKENZIES OF KINCRAIG.

I. COLIN MACKENZIE, second son of Roderick Mor Mackenzie, I. of
Redcastle, who was the first of this family, married Catherine,
daughter of the Rev. John Mackenzie of Tolly, minister of Dingwall
(sasine to her 15th September, 1617), with issue -

1. Colin, his heir and successor.

2. Roderick, who married, first, Isabel, daughter of Hector
Mackenzie, IV. of Fairburn, and secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of
John Bayne of Tulloch sasine to him in 1652, and to her in 1656.

3. Margaret, who in 1638 married, first, Gilbert Robertson, II. of
Kindeace, and secondly, John, eldest son of Hugh Ross of Achnacloich.

4. Florence, who in 1643 married David Cuthbert, Town-Clerk of
Inverness.

5. Agnes, who married, first, in 1672, Alexander Bayne of Knockbain,
and secondly, the Rev. John Macrae, minister of Dingwall, author
of the Ardintoul MS. History of the Mackenzies, and of a MS.
Genealogy of the MacRas.

6. A daughter, who married John Clunes, Cromarty. Colin married,
secondly, a daughter of Innes of Inverbreakie, widow of Murdo
Mackenzie of Towie, with issue - James, who married Catherine Innes.

He died in 1649, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. COLIN MACKENZIE, second of Kincraig, who married Agnes,
daughter of Duncan Bayne of Delny, with issue -

1. Colin, his heir and successor.

2. Duncan, Lieutenant-Colonel Scots Guards, who married, and died
without issue in 1724.

3. Lilias, who married the Rev. William Mackenzie, minister of
Rosskeen.

4. Katharine, who in 1680 married, as his second wife, William Grant
of Ardoch, with issue. She was maternal great great-grandmother
of the Rev. Gustavus Aird, D.D., Creich, ex-Moderator of the Free
Church General Assembly, and who has in his possession a copy of
the marriage contract dated as above.

5. Christian, who in 1681 married William Mackenzie, brother of
Murdoch Mackenzie, II. of Ardross.

Colin married, secondly, Christian Munro, widow of William Ross,
Knockgartie (contract of marriage 16th of March, 1680).

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

III. COLIN MACKENZIE, third of Kincraig, who in 1679 married
Lilias, daughter of John Mackenzie, II. of Scatwell, with issue -

1. Colin, his heir and successor.

2. John, who succeeded his brother as V. of Kincraig.

3. Anne, who married John Mackenzie, brother of Alexander Mackenzie,
I. of Ardross, without issue.

4. Barbara, who married James Mackenzie, of Tarrel.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV. COLIN MACKENZIE, fourth of Kincraig, who married, as her third
husband, Margaret, daughter of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon,
without issue.

He was succeeded by his next brother,

V. JOHN MACKENZIE, fifth of Kincraig, Captain in Lochiel's Regiment.
He married Christina, daughter of James Menzies of Comrie, without
issue. She died at Kincraig on the 21st of December, 1775. He
was dangerously wounded at Malplaguet in 1709. On the 20th of
December, 1760, he made a disposition of the lands of Kincraig to
Roderick Mackenzie, VII. of Redcastle, in trust for his second son
John, then only nine years old.

John died a few days after, and was succeeded by his remote cousin,

VI. CAPTAIN JOHN MACKENZIE, sixth of Kincraig, second surviving
son of Roderick Ban, VII. of Redcastle, born there in 1751. He
served in Lord Macleod's Regiment (now 71st Highlanders), and
was wounded at Gibraltar. His descendants, since the death of
Roderick, IX. of Redcastle in 1798 without issue, carried on also
the representation of the main line of that family. He married
Mary, daughter of the Rev. Colin Mackenzie, minister of Fodderty,
with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Colin, Lieutenant 71st Regiment, killed in action at Vittoria,
on the 21st of June, 1813, without issue.

3. John, who died without issue, on the 20th of August, 1822, off
St. Helena, coming home from Java.

4. Kenneth Francis, Colonel 64th Bengal Native Infantry, who
married on the 6th of January, 1832, Margaret, daughter of the Rev.
Thomas Taylor, D.D., of Tibbermore, with issue - Captain Roderick
Boyd, H.E.I.C.S., who died at Cheltenham, on the 5th of October,
1867, unmarried Lieutenant Wedderburn Hannah, H.E.I.C.S. Thomas
Harry, who died young Mary Christina, who married on the 17th
of December, 1849, Colonel Brown-Constable, with issue - twelve
children Margaret Jane, who on the 10th of October, 1850, married
Major-General H. F. Waddington, of Monmouthshire, with issue - six
children, several of whom married with issue Isabella Fraser, who
died young and Annie Colina, who on the 31st of October, 1866,
married Thomas H. Knolles, with issue - five children. Colonel
Kenneth Francis died at sea in 1856.

5. Hector, Major H.E.I.C.S., who died unmarried.

6. Hugh, late Colonel 2nd Bengal Europeans, who married, first, Anne,
daughter of Thomas Duncan, Advocate, Aberdeen, with issue - Captain
Harry Leith, R.A., who was twice married, with issue John Hugh,
M.D. Thomas Duncan, Bombay Civil Service, who married on the 25th
of April, 1871, with issue Mary Janet, who on the 31st of July,
1866, married Surgeon-Major Kilgour, with issue and Sarah Anne.
Colonel Hugh married, secondly, Edith S. Hastings, Oxfordshire,
also with issue.

7. Charles Fitzgerald, H.E.I.C.S., who married the Hon. Mrs
Fergusson, daughter of Lord Kirkcudbright, and died, without issue,
on the 5th of September, 1850.

8. Maxwell, a natural son, Lieutenant-Colonel 71st Regiment,
killed at Bayonne in 1813, to whom and his brother Colin a monument
by Chantry is erected in Rosskeen Church.

9. Mary, who on the 28th of January, 1813, married Major-General
Sir Donald Macleod.

10. Johanna Charlotte Menzies, who died unmarried in 1794.

11. Margaret, who married Donald Macintyre, Calcutta, with issue
- (1) Lieutenant-General John Mackenzie Macintyre, Royal (Madras)
Artillery, who, in 1857, married Marianne Margaret, daughter of
Alexander Nisbet Shaw, Bombay Civil Service, with issue - Donald
Charles Frederick, Captain 2nd (P.W.O.) Goorkhas Alexander William
Robert Cadell Isabella Mary, who married George Wade, sculptor,
son of Canon Wade, Bristol Margaret Faimy, the celebrated prima
donna and Georgina Caroline. (2) Major-General Donald Macintyre,
V.C., who in 1882 married Angelica Alison, daughter of the Rev. T.
J. Patteson, Kinnettles, Forfarshire, with issue - Donald Francis
Hector Mackenzie Ian Agnew Patteson and Alison Margaret. (3)
Colina Maxwell, who, in 1844, married Dr William Brydon, "the last
man" or sole survivor of 13,000 men in the disastrous retreat from
Cabul to Jellalabad in 1842, who died in 1873, with issue - eight
children. (4) Mary Isabella, who in 1849 married General James
Travers, V.C. and (5) Charlotte Anne.

12. Jane Petley, who died young.

13. Isabella, who married, first, Captain Allan Cameron, with issue
and secondly, General Sir Hugh Fraser, K.C.B., of Braelangwell,
with issue - (1) John Fraser of Braelangwell, who married Elizabeth,
daughter of Beauchamp Colclough Urquhart of Meldrum, Aberdeenshire,
with issue - Hugh K. Fraser of Braelangwell, and Annie M. Mackenzie
Fraser (2) Hugh Fraser, Lieutenant 71st Regiment, who died without
issue (3) Isabella Forbes Fraser, who married Beauchamp Colclough
Urquhart of Meldrum, with issue - Beauchamp Colclough Urquhart
and Isobel A. Urquhart, who married Garden A. Duff of Hatton (4)
Alexander, Captain 10th Regiment, who married a daughter of Major
D'Arcy, with issue. Isabella died in 1852.

14. Elizabeth Jane, who died unmarried in 1832.

Captain John's widow died at Park House, Dingwall, on the 4th of
January, 1838. He having died at Kincraig on the 29th of April,
1822, aged 72 years, when he was succeeded by his eldest son,

VII. RODERICK MACKENZIE, Major H.E.I.C.S., who married in 1836,
Katharine, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, of Millbank, son of
Bailie Hector Mackenzie, of Dingwall, a cadet of Letterewe and
Gairloch, with issue -

1. Roderick, his heir and successor.

2. Katharine, who died unmarried in 1870.

3. Eliza Jane, who married George Martineau, with issue - George
William Alfred and a daughter Katherine.

5. Alice, who married Alexander Edmond, without issue.

Major Roderick died at Kincraig on the 6th of April, 1853, and was
succeeded by his only son.

VIII. CAPTAIN RODERICK MACKENZIE, late of Kincraig, who, on
the 5th of February, 1867, married Georgina Adelaide, daughter of
Roderick Mackenzie, IV. of Flowerburn, without issue.


THE MACKENZIES OF CROMARTY.

THIS family, next to the House of Kintail and Seaforth, played
the most important part in the history of the Highlands. They
are descended from Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Coigeach, Tutor of
Kintail, who in his day took such a conspicuous part in the affairs
of the Clan. His career is noticed at considerable length in
the history of the Seaforth family, and need not here be enlarged
upon. He was the second son of Colin Cam Mackenzie, XI. of
Kintail, by Barbara, daughter of John Grant, XII. of Grant. He
was a brave and resolute man. On a certain occasion he seized
MacNeil of Barra by stratagem, and carried that chief, of whom
Queen Elizabeth had been complaining, to the Court of King James
at Holyrood. When brought into His Majesty's presence MacNeil,
who, much to the surprise of all, was a tall, good-looking man
of reverend aspect, with a long grey beard, proved a match for
the King. When asked by His Majesty what could induce him to commit
so many piracies and robberies on the Queen of England's subjects,
he replied that he thought he was doing the King good service by
annoying "a woman who had murdered his mother." James exclaimed,
"The devil take the carle! Rorie, take him with you again,
and dispose of him and his fortune as you please." On another
occasion, when Sir Roderick was passing through Athole on his way
to Edinburgh, in the interest of his ward, he was stopped and found
fault with by the men of that district for passing through their
country without the permission of their lord. The Tutor dismounted
and sought out a stone, on which he began to sharpen his claymore,
whereupon the Athole men, from a safe distance, asked him what he
was doing? "I am going to make a road," was the ready answer.
"You shall make no road here." "Oh, I don't seek to do so but
I shall make it between your lord's head and his shoulders if I
am hindered from pursuing my lawful business." On hearing this
retort the Athole men retired, and on reaching their master told
him what had occurred. "It was either the devil or the Tutor of
Kintail," his Lordship replied, "let him have a free path for ever."
That he was severe in his position as Tutor is clear from the
following proverb still current in Ross-shire: "There are but
two things worse than the Tutor of Kintail - frost in spring and
mist in the dog days." He married Margaret, daughter and co-heiress
of Torquil Macleod, "Torquil Cononach" of the Lewis, Coigeach,
and Assynt, with whom Roderick obtained her father's mainland
possessions, previously, however, in 1605, granted by Torquil to
Kenneth Mackenzie, X. of Kintail, Sir Roderick's eldest brother.
He purchased Milton and Tarbat Ness in Easter Ross from the
Munroes. He had issue by his wife -

1. John, his heir and successor, afterwards Sir John Mackenzie of
Tarbat.

2. Kenneth, I. of Scatwell, of whose family presently.

3. Colin, I of Tarvie, who married Isobel, daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, and widow of John Mackenzie of Lochslinn,
with issue.

4. Alexander, I. of Ballone, of whom after Scatwell.

5. James. 6. Charles. Both died unmarried.

7. Margaret, who married Sir James Macdonald, IX. of Sleat, with
issue - his heir and successor, and others.

He had also a natural son, the Rev. John Mackenzie, Archdean
of Ross, who, by his wife, Christian, daughter of John Wemyss of
Lathocker, had issue - the Rev. Roderick Mackenzie, first of Avoch,
in 1671 Sub-Chaunter of Ross, and several other children. He died
in 1666.

In 1609 Sir Roderick was knighted for the part he took, along with
his brother Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, in pacifying
the Lewis and civilising its inhabitants.

He died in 1628, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

SIR JOHN MACKENZIE of Tarbat, created a Baronet of Nova Scotia
on the 21st of May, 1628. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir
George Erskine of Innerteil, a Lord of Session, with issue -

1. George, his heir and successor.

3. Sir Roderick, who has a sasine as third son in June, 1654. He
was M.P. in 1700 for Cromarty, and in 1703 for the Burgh of Fortrose.
He was subsequently raised to the Bench as Lord Prestonhall, and
married, first, Margaret, daughter of Dr Burnet, Archbishop of
St. Andrews, with issue - Alexander Mackenzie of Fraserdale, who,
in 1702, married Amelia, eldest daughter of Hugh, Xth Lord Lovat,
with issue--several sons and daughters. Alexander's representation
was proved extinct in 1826. Lord Prestonhall married, secondly,
Margaret, daughter of Haliburton of Pitcur, widow of Sir George
Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, without issue.

4. Alexander, I. of Ardloch, whose representatives became heirs
male to the Cromarty titles.

5. Kenneth, who married Isobell Auckinleck, with issue--Kenneth,
who died without issue.

6. James, M.D., who died unmarried.

7. Margaret, who married, first, Roderick Macleod, XV. of Macleod,
without surviving issue and secondly, Sir James Campbell of Lawers,
Perthshire.

8. Ann, who married Hugh, IXth Lord Lovat, with issue.

9. Isabel, who married Kenneth, third Earl of Seaforth, with issue
- his heir and successor, and others.

10. Barbara, who married Alexander Mackenzie, VII. of Gairloch,
with issue.


NORSE VOYAGES IN THE TENTH AND FOLLOWING CENTURIES.

IF we go back to the middle of the ninth century we find what is now Norway divided into thirty odd districts, called fylkes, and governed by kinglets, or jarls. These rulers were elected and obtained their positions by the grace of the people in convention assembled. But about this time there appeared in Norway a man named Harald Fairhair, who with his prime minister, Guthorm, succeeded in subjugating all the kinglets in Norway, and united the various fylkes into one kingdom. The

last battle was a naval engagement at Hafursfjord, near Stavanger, in July, 872. In this battle the last of the kinglets was conquered, and Harald became monarch of all Norway. His usurpation of power created great dissatisfaction and resulted in a large emigration to France, to the British Isles, to the Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetland Isles, to the Fareys and particularly to Iceland. Iceland had been discovered in 860, and had been visited several times by Norsemen between that time and 874, in which year the settlement of Iceland began. The flower of the Norwegian people emigrated, and it was not long before Iceland had a population of more than 50,000 souls. In Iceland a republic was organized which flourished for four hundred years and it was during the time of the republic that the grand old poetic and historic literature of Iceland was produced.

Here it is proper to add that the Norsemen were the discoverers of pelagic navigation. Let me here state with all the emphasis that I am able to compress into so many words, that the navigation of the ocean was discovered by the old Norse Vikings. Before them, the only navigation known was coast navigation. The Norsemen were excellent ship-builders and knew how to calculate time by the sun, moon and stars, and into every history of the world, and into every encyclopedia I would have the fact conspicuously stated that pelagic navigation was discovered by the Norsemen.

Iceland became the hinge upon which the door swings which opened America to Europe. In the voyages between Norway and Iceland--a distance of about 800

miles--the sailors would occasionally be overtaken by cloudy and stormy weather and drift beyond Iceland, and so they could not help finding their way by accident to Greenland and other countries to the west and southwest of Iceland. And so it happened that in the year 876 a Norwegian mariner, by name Gunbjorn, reported that he had seen land far to the west of Iceland.

If the reader will now go with me to the southwestern part of Norway, about the middle of the tenth century, we shall find living there in a district called Jadern a man called Erik (often spelled Eirik) the Red. He was called the "Red" on account of his red hair and red beard and ruddy complexion. It also appears that he had a somewhat fiery and combative disposition. He now and then quarrelled with his neighbours, and on one occasion he had the misfortune of becoming guilty of manslaughter. For this reason he decided to emigrate from Norway, and he removed with his family to the western part of Iceland. But while he left his neighbors and the dust and sky of Jadern behind him, he carried his fiery nature with him and it was not long before he got into trouble with his new neighbors in Iceland. He therefore decided to emigrate from Iceland also and to go in search of the land seen nearly a hundred years before by Gunbjorn far to the west of Iceland. He left Iceland with a few companions in 982 and found an extensive country far to the west of Iceland. He remained there making explorations for three years and decided to found a colony there. He was anxious to give the country a name that might be attractive to settlers, and in discussing this

question with his companions, they agreed on naming the country Greenland, reasoning that no name would be better suited to attract immigrants.

Greenland belongs entirely to the Western Hemisphere and is accordingly a part of America. The discovery of Greenland was in fact the discovery of America, and Erik the Red was the first European who ever boomed real estate on the Western Continent, and he boomed it successfully. He succeeded in founding in Greenland a colony which flourished for several hundred years. The Icelandic sagas contain elaborate accounts of this colony and give us the names of a number of the bishops who resided there.

Erik the Red returned to Iceland in 985, and in 986 he, with a considerable number of followers, emigrated to Greenland. Among those who emigrated with Erik the Red was one Herjulf Bardson. Herjulf Bardson had a son, by name Bjarne. Bjarne was a viking merchant. He had a custom of spending one year with his father in Iceland and the next year abroad, acquiring fee and fame, that is, wealth and reputation. In 986 he chanced to be absent on a viking expedition and, on returning to Iceland in the summer, he learned that his father had emigrated with Erik the Red to Greenland. Desiring to spend the next winter with his father, as was his custom, he asked his sailors whether they would go with him. They all said they would. "But we have none of us ever been in the Greenland sea," said Bjarne. "We mind not that," said his men, "we are willing to go wherever you will lead." And so Bjarne and his men at

once set sail from Iceland. They were overtaken by foggy and stormy weather and sailed on and on, not knowing whither they were sailing. The fog and storm lasted for several weeks, then the sky cleared, the sun shone again, and lo behold they could see land in the distance! They saw that they were much too far south. The land, which was hilly and well wooded, did not correspond to the descriptions which they had received of Greenland. It was getting late in the season, so they did not go ashore, but proceeded northward. On their journey northward they discovered two other countries, but as neither of them could be Greenland they did not land. They hastened on until they finally reached Greenland in safety and happened to land near the colony founded by Erik the Red. We have no time to go into details, but it is evident that the first land seen by Bjarne, Herjulf's son, must have been some part of New England the second land was probably Nova Scotia, and the third Newfoundland. And thus Bjarne, in the year 986, was the first pale-faced man whose eyes looked upon the American continent.

Erik the Red was the chief of the colony in Greenland. His family consisted of three sons, Leif, Thorvald and Thorstein, all bright, stalwart and enterprising young men.

In the year 1000, the same year as that in which Christianity was adopted as the religion of Iceland, Leif Erikson chanced to be in Norway. Norway had just been converted to Christianity and the ruler at this time was the famous King Olaf Trygvason. Leif Erikson

met the king, and the king became very fond of him. He persuaded Leif to accept the Christian religion and be baptised. Then King Olaf sent for Leif and told him that he had a double mission for him. "In the first place," said King Olaf, "I want you to go, and look up those lands which were seen by Bjarne and secure more definite information about them, and in the second place, I want you to go as a missionary to Greenland and preach the gospel of the White Christ to the colonists there."

Leif agreed to carry out the king's wishes. In the summer of the year 1000 he set sail for the far West. He decided to investigate the lands seen by Bjarne before going to Greenland. On his way west, he first reached the land which Bjarne reported he had seen, that is, Newfoundland. He anchored his ship off the coast, went ashore, and, exploring the land somewhat, found that it was hilly and extensively covered with large, flat stones. He decided to name the country after its most conspicuous peculiarities, and called it Helluland (land of flat stones). Then he proceeded towards the southwest and reached the second land seen by Bjarne (that is, Nova Scotia), which he also explored somewhat, and found that it was a heavily wooded country. On account of the large forests he called it Markland (timberland). Then he sailed on to the first country seen by Bjarne, that is, some part of New England, and here, the saga tells us, he first entered a bay and then a river, then the river widened into a lake, which he crossed, then he entered a river on the other side of the lake and sailed up this river as far as it was deep enough for his viking

ship. As the reader will see, this can be applied to the Boston Harbor, to the Charles River between Boston and Cambridgeport, to the Back Bay between Boston and Cambridge and to the Charles River up as far as Gerry's Landing, near which our Professor Horsford. claimed to have found the site of Leif Erikson's house and fireplace.

After having landed, Leif Erikson and his party, thirty-one in number, pulled the vessel ashore and at once went to work to build a house for the winter. The party was divided into two groups to explore the country in different directions on alternate days. On one evening, when the exploring party returned to the camp, one man was missing. This was a German, by name Tyrker, who, though a prisoner of war, was Leif Erikson's special favorite. Leif Erikson became very much alarmed and anxious He feared that Tyrker might have been slain by natives or devoured by wild beasts. Therefore with his men Leif immediately set out in search of Tyrker. But they had not gone far from the camp, when they met their missing fellow mate in a very excited state of mind. The cause of his excitement was the fact that he had found ripe wild-grapes. He had his arms full of grapes, and was devouring the fruit with all his might, and when spoken to by Leif Erikson, he only answered in his native tongue, "Weintrauben! Weintrauben!! Weintrauben. " He was born in a country where the grape grew, and, having been absent from Germany for many years, the finding of grapes in this western world overwhelmed him with delight. The

sagas tell us that grapes were found in great abundance on every hand, and from this circumstance Leif gave the country the name of Vinland, and history at the same time obtained the interesting fact that a German accompanied these daring Argonauts of the Christian era.

The sagas give very full and interesting accounts of the various products of Vinland and of the natives or aborigines with whom our Norse explorers came in contact. This part of the subject is fully treated in preceding chapters of this volume. What I desire particularly to emphasize at this point is the fact that Leif Erikson was the first European and the first Christian who planted his feet on American soil and, as such, he deserves a conspicuous place in the history of our country. He represents the first chapter of civilized and Christian history of America.

In the spring Leif Erikson loaded his vessel with as much timber as it would carry and, in obedience to the instructions of King Olaf, proceeded to Greenland to preach, the gospel of the Gallilean to Erik the Red's colony there. He was successful, and had the good fortune to convert the whole colony to the Christian religion, except the aged Erik the Red. The latter stubbornly refused to be persuaded. He declared that his faith in Odin and Thor, and particularly in his own might and main, had been sufficient for him through his long life, and he would not forsake the Gods of his childhood in his old age. And so Erik the Red died as he had lived, a heathen.

In the Greenland colony there was much talk about

[paragraph continues] Vinland the Good, and it was the general opinion that the country had been far too little explored. It was therefore agreed in the year 1002 that Leif's brother, Thorwald, should make an expedition to Vinland. He set out with a good crew of men and reached Vinland in safety, where he occupied the house built by Leif two years before. He came into conflicts with the natives, and in one of these he lost his life, an arrow from one of the aborigines piercing his heart. His comrades buried him in Vinland, and Thorwald's was the first Christian grave made in this Western World. His grave was marked by two crosses, one at the head and one at the foot. Then the little band of Norsemen, having lost their leader, returned to Greenland.

Two years later, 1005, it was decided that the youngest brother, Thorstein, should proceed to Vinland, partly for the purpose of bringing back the body of his brother Thorwald. Thorstein's wife was Gudrid, a noble, refined, intelligent and enterprising woman, and an ornament to her sex. Gudrid went with her husband on this expedition, but the party did not reach Vinland. The weather was unfavorable and the vessel drifted far to the north. Thorstein was taken sick and died, and the widow, Gudrid, took the vessel back to Erik's fjord in Greenland.

Leif Erikson and his sister-in-law, Gudrid, lived at the farm Brattahlid in Greenland, and if the reader now will go with me to that northern country in the year 1006 we will find that there had just arrived in the colony a distinguished and wealthy man from Norway. His

name was Thorfin Karlsefni. He visited frequently at Brattahlid, and with each visit his admiration of Gudrid increased. The spark of love soon grew into an uncontrollable flame and he asked the young widow to become his wife. The matter was referred to Leif Erikson, who had the disposal of his sister-in-law, and he at once consented, and accordingly the nuptials of Gudrid and Thorfin were celebrated in grand style during the Christian holidays of the year 1006. The honeymoon was spent in Greenland, and I fancy that when the sun's rays began to warm the atmosphere the following spring that the young couple took many a walk on the sea shore, and I take it also that much of their conversation turned on Vinland, the Good, and the prospects offered for founding a settlement in that beautiful and fertile country. Gudrid was a bright and enterprising young woman and, while there is no record of the fact, I can imagine that she looked smiling into Thorfin's face and talked to him somewhat in this fashion: "I wonder that you, Thorfin, with all your wealth and with all your splendid men should choose to live in this Godforsaken country instead of seeking out the famous Vinland and planting a colony there. Just think what an agreeable change it would be for all of us! Thick and leafy woods instead of these willow bushes that are good for nothing except to save our cattle from starvation when the hay crop gives out. Longer summers and shorter and less cold winters instead of the barren wastes of this country. Surely, I think this land was woefully misnamed when Erik the Red called it Greenland."

Of course Gudrid pleaded as only a woman can plead, and Thorfin was persuaded. He resolved to plant a colony in Vinland, and in the summer of 1007 he organized a party of one hundred and fifty-one men and seven women, who sailed in three ships from Greenland to Vinland. That Thorfin and Gudrid intended to make a permanent settlement in Vinland is also, evident from the fact that they took cattle and sheep with them. The party reached Vinland in safety, and remained there three years, but the frequent conflicts with the aborigines made their life a very precarious one, and they finally decided to, abandon the colony, and return to Greenland. Powder and firearms had not yet been invented, and the superior intelligence of the Norsemen was not sufficient to protect them against the swarms of natives that surrounded them and were as well armed as the Norsemen. It is, however, to be recorded that during their stay in Vinland, Thorfin and Gudrid got a son. They named him Snorre. He was born in the summer of 1008, and was the first white and the first Christian child who saw the light of day in America.

The sagas--that is to, say, the histories--written in Iceland, describing these voyages of the Norsemen, give very full accounts of the daily life in the Vinland colony, of the explorations, of the natives of America, of the various kinds of products of the soil, of the climate, etc., and it is interesting to read these first recorded descriptions of a land that has since become so prominent in the history of the world, and which is now so dear to all of us who call it our home.

The sagas tell of various other voyages to Vinland, particularly of one in the year 1011. In 1121 it is stated, in various places in the sagas, that a bishop named Erik Upse went to find Vinland. It is nowhere stated whether he actually reached Vinland or returned and we are simply left to conjecture as to the purpose and result of his journey. All we know with certainty is that he "started for Vinland." However, it is by no means likely that the church would send a bishop to Vinland before a colony was planted there. We know now by the manuscript reports shown among the Vatican Exhibits at the World's Fair, 1904, that the Catholic See of Greenland extended its jurisdiction over all the new discoveries of Lief and Thorvald, and Karlsefni. It was common for priests to accompany voyages, but bishops took charge of the Church interests of colonies and, therefore, by the sending of bishop Erik Upse to Vinland it is reasonably certain that a colony had been planted there and was maintained for several years. This inevitable conclusion is fortified, if not confirmed, by references contained in official reports made by the bishops of Greenland to the Church at Rome.

The last expedition mentioned in the sagas was in 1347, 145 years before the rediscovery by Columbus. In that year it is stated that a vessel came from Markland (Nova Scotia) to Iceland with a cargo of wood. But this, as the reader will see, carries us down to a memorable period in European history. It brings us to the breaking out of the terrible black plague, or black death. The ravages of the black plague were so enormous, they

so much decimated the population of all European countries that much time was required for recuperation. It took more than one hundred years for Europe to recover sufficiently to be able to engage in new enterprises either at home or abroad. We can form some conception of the character of the black death when we learn that it reduced the population of Norway alone from 2,000,000 to 300,000. The black death has been handed down in tradition from generation to generation, even to the present time. The Norwegian peasants speak of it as an old hag marching through the country with a rake in one hand and a broom in the other. If she came to a valley in Norway where there were a few good people she used the rake and the virtuous would escape between the fingers of the rake. But when she found a valley where all the people were wicked she used the broom and did not leave a soul to tell the tale of what had happened. Some of the remote valleys thus swept clean have been rediscovered within the last century. The black death also visited Iceland and Greenland and committed similar depredations there. It is evident that this scourge left no surplus population for exploring and colonizing lands beyond the sea.

If the communication between the north of Europe and Greenland and Vinland could have been continued a hundred years longer, that is, until the middle of the fifteenth century, or until the countries had recuperated from the ravages of the black plague and until after the discovery of the compass and of powder and fire arms, then there is no doubt but that the Norse colonies would

have become permanent, and America would have become the scene of Norse settlements and Norse enterprises. The Norse language would have taken possession of this country from sea to sea and there is little doubt that his article of mine would have been written in the Norse tongue instead of in English. Meanwhile it is certain that Bjarne Herjulfson was the first European whose eyes beheld the American continent, that Leif Erikson was the first pale-faced man whose feet trod on American soil, that his brother Thorvald was the first Christian buried beneath our sod, that Thorfin Karlsefni was the first to attempt the planting of a colony on our shores, that the noble and intelligent Gudrid was the first white woman to honor America with her presence, and that Thorfin's and Gudrid's son Snorre was the first white child born in America.

In this connection it is interesting to note the fact that the first white man to visit the extreme western part of America was the Dane, Vitus Bering, after whom Bering Strait bears its name. Bering discovered the extreme western coast of this country in 1728. The Norwegian, Leif Erikson, stands at the rising, and the Dane, Vitus Bering, at the setting sun, and clasp the great American continent in their strong Scandinavian arms. The Swedes, too, should be remembered, for when this country was in the throes of the great civil war, did not Sweden give us her great son, John Ericsson, who invented for us the Monitor?

"Truth crushed to earth will rise again." The facts of these Norse voyages have long lain darkened and hid

in old neglected libraries, and so truth may long lie unknown under the dust and rubbish of the ages but it is like a ray of light from a star in some far-off region of the universe. After thousands of years that ray reaches some other heavenly body and gives it light.


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  3. Change in Assignment:RFMT (Reserve Force Manpower Tools) – A system for billet assignments.
      [CAC PIV Certificate] [DOD EMAIL Certificate]

· Devan began by noting that the office of county education is the liaison between Trenton and the Department of education. They have 15 districts and four charter schools and serve about 24,000 students. Fairfield school district is the only one in Cumberland that has delayed its in-person opening. Currently virtual support groups are in planning and will be announced when available to support learning spaces in the home for students.

Summer Youth Employment Program (Prevention Category)

Violence Prevention Program (Prevention Category)

Individual Mentoring Program (Diversion Category / Disposition Category) – Mary Ann Hamidy

In-Home Counseling Program (Diversion Category)

In-Home Detention Alternative Program (Detention Category)

In-Home Counseling Program (Disposition Category)

Cognitive Skills Program (Disposition Category)

  • Cumberland County Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Services:Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services Program (Diversion Category / Disposition Category)

Sex Offender Services Program (Disposition Category)

Probation Enrichment & Transportation Program (JDAI)

Shelter Program (Human Services)

Christine Colon made an announcement

VII. Adjournment-

Eddie May made a motion to adjourn the meeting. Gary Bryant seconded with all in favor. The meeting was adjourned at 4:10 PM.

The next meeting will be held on November 18 th , 2020, at 3:00PM via MS Teams

Frank Carozza, Cumberland County Youth Services Administrator

2020 Youth Services Commission Meeting Schedule

CY 2021 Youth Services Commission Meeting Schedule

Wednesday, September 15 th

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? The program has been utilizing virtual workshops via Zoom without any connectivity issues.
  1. Do you have any program highlights to share? Clients are still participating and on target to graduate in mid-October.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Teleconferencing Community

Service & Graduation

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1, 2020, Year To Date? 20

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? The overall number of referrals being sent to the program. The Program Supervisor has been in weekly contact with the Probation Supervisor and has requested being able to attend Formal and Informal hearings to assist the Family Court in making appropriate referrals.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Teleconferencing.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1, 2020, YTD? 16

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? None
  2. Do you have any program highlights to share? None at time

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Very low referrals

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? 6

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  • What is your current level of service? Level 1 with 14 clients currently attending

Youth are not report for assessments or groups

Improved group attendance

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming?

Yes Youths parents having fear about client attending treatment at the agency due to COVID-19.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? (40)

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? Yes, unable to deliver program due to COVID-19

program in with one of the schools in Cumberland Vineland or Millville.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? PRAC was not able to deliver the

Program at the Cunningham (Vineland) and Thunderbolt (Millville) Academy due

  • What is your current level of service? 11 kids total participated in the program in September. 5 of these students were new to the program and 6 were returning.
  1. Do you have any program highlights to share?
  2. We completed our 9 th session Life Skills class which was Internet Safety. The Life Skills coordinator created a power point about Internet Safety and also found catfishing videos on You Tube to show the dangers of not being safe on the internet. 4 youth participated in this session.
  • We also had an Art class in place of a trip via zoom. We are unable to conduct trips right now because probation is still furloughed. We had 5 youth and 4 family members attend the art class where we had the students watch a video on beginner’s painting with acrylic paint. The SODAT staff and the youth and family watched the video together, virtually, and then guided the participants on how to make the painting. If the students didn’t finish their painting in the time allotted, they took a picture of the painting and sent it via text message to the SODAT phone. Each youth received a gift card and a complete painting kit including canvases, brushes, books on painting, a sketch pad, acrylic paint, water dish, paint pallet, brush holders, and an apron for participating. All of these giveaways were hand delivered by Amber from SODAT to each individual youth’s house.
  • SODAT also did a virtual college tour to the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. A member of the college created a power point presentation of the college and showed the youth the different programs they offer, the different buildings, the financial aspect of attending the school and the dorms. 4 youth and 2 family members attended this virtual tour. Each youth received a gift card for attending and the gift cards were dropped off by Amber from SODAT to each of the student’s house.
  • Probation also conducted an orientation virtually which SODAT was a part of. 5 youth and 2 family members attended the orientation. Gift cards were mailed to each of the students for attending the orientation. The gift cards were mailed out.

INCENTIVES FOR MONTH OF September– 6 Level I, 8 Level II, 10 Level III

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? SODAT has gone completely virtual due to COVID and it makes the activities and life skills more time consuming because we have to do each student individually via zoom and we also have to drop all the supplies off to each student. Activities can sometimes take up to 3 or 4 days to complete.

We are still are awarding gift card incentives and either mailing them to the youth or using the SODAT vehicle to personally drop them off.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date?

Total – We’ve served 40 out of the 45 individual students (unduplicated) we have active via life skills, orientation, incentives and college tours, and trips, since January. Many of these students have participated in numerous aspects of the program.

  • Provider / Program Name: Cumberland County Department of Workforce Development Center
  1. What is your current funding balance? $ 0 . We requested additional funds in total of $ 3,602.89 to cover extra hours for a job coaching
  1. Do you have any program highlights to share?The program ended on 09/27/2020. The positive terminations were due to the following reasons found employment closer to home or at a local Wawa store, relocated, leaving for college, went back to HS. The negative terminations were due to personal issues, no call, no show and terminated from the program.

Even though this program looked and felt a lot different this year due to the pandemic, everyone involved made it successful. Wawa transferred 78 youth to work at local stores and 11 alternates who work at least 4 hours per month. Job Coaches will continue offering coaching services until December 31 st to help students, who have been hired locally, transition to their inland stores.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? The safety guidelines were a challenge in the beginning. Also ensuring youth were remaining safe while on the bus and in the store. Wawa staff, job coaching, Sheppard bus company and workforce development staff all worked together to come up with a solid plan of action

XIII. How many total youths have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year to Date? 126

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report October 2020

  1. What is your current funding balance? $23,443.57
  2. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? A few clients did not want TeleHealth services.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Increase of Youth due to loss of medical insurance benefits.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? We have served 33 youth.

  • How much funding has your program spent so far this program year? $25,116.32
  1. What is your current funding balance? 6,133.68
  2. . Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? A few clients did not want TeleHealth services.
  3. Do you have any program highlights to share? Not at this time.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Low referrals.

  • How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? 11 youth
  1. Provider / Program Name: Mentoring Disposition
  2. What is your current level of service 2
  • How much funding has your program spent so far this program year? $41,682.77
  1. What is your current funding balance? $-1,682.77
  2. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? No

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Have not been affected.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? We have served 19 youth.

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report October 2020

  1. Provider / Program Name: In Home Detention
  2. Month Reporting: September 2020
  • What is your current level of service 1
  • How much funding has your program spent so far this program year? $15,786.01.
  1. What is your current funding balance? $5,059.59
  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? No barriers at this time

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Unable to go to youth’s home maintaining contact through phone, face time, zoom.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? We have served 2 youth year to date

Cumberland County Youth Services Advisory Council Meeting Minutes

Wednesday, December 16th, 2020

Microsoft Teams- 1-856-209-3537

Conference ID: 722 689 668#

Eddie May (DCPP), Pat Baitinger (CC Probation), Gary Bryant (CC Probation), Shanet Bowe (Family Court), Julie Coward (Family Court), Christine Graves (MRSS), Mary Ann Hamidy (YAP), Sierra Parks (CFS), Ron Hudak (CGS-CMO), Melissa Niles (DHS), Rick Ortiz (PRAC), Frank Carozza (DHS/YSAC Admin), Mike Dindak (Ranch Hope), Joeny Mendez (WFD), Timothy Andrews (WFD), Mike Regenelli (SWC), Amber Smith (SODAT), Kuan Bowleg (Community Advocate), Jenna Harvey (Community Advocate) Maria Rodriguez, Sierra Parks, Matthew Skinner (OPD), Erin Klein (Acenda), Deliza Arguello (SWC).

“In compliance with the Open Public Meetings Act, Chapter 231, Public Law 1975, this meeting of the Youth Services Advisory Council transmitted notice of this meeting to the South Jersey Times, the Daily Journal, SNJ Today, The Guide, The Reminder and The Press of Atlantic City. A notice was also posted on the Cumberland County homepage on the internet in compliance with this Act”. (The Open Public Meetings Act)

III. Review and Approval of Minutes from 10-21-20

  • *Motion: Ron Hudak made a motion to approve the September 16th, 2020 minutes, Gary Bryant seconded. The minutes were approved with all in favor.

The Cumberland County Virtual Minutes Archive –

Complete meeting schedules, recordings, minutes, plans, and current events from January 2020 can now be accessed by YSAC members and the general public at: https://njacysca.org/about-us/nj-counties/cumberland-county/

  1. Roll Call Vote to Approve CY2021 Allocation Modifications 1 & 2:
  • Vote I: Combine The 15k intended for school-based prevention programming and reserve the funds to allocate to programs that may demonstrate an additional or unexpected influx of youth related to the pandemic- all schools will have priority on this funding should they return to session and begin programming again.

2 nd : Michelle Slaney-Mills

Voting Member

2 nd: Michelle Slaney-Mills

Voting Member

  • Administrator’s ReportFrank Carozza
  • The 2020-21 Comprehensive Plan has been submitted and pending final revisions from the JJC.
  • Vendors please prepare 4 th quarter JAMS narrative reports on December 31 st .
  • Provider Reports:
  • Cumberland County Department of Workforce and Economic Development:

Summer Youth Employment Program (Prevention Category)

Violence Prevention Program (Prevention Category)

Individual Mentoring Program (Diversion Category / Disposition Category) – Mary Ann Hamidy

In-Home Counseling Program (Diversion Category)

In-Home Detention Alternative Program (Detention Category)

In-Home Counseling Program (Disposition Category)

Cognitive Skills Program (Disposition Category)

  • Cumberland County Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Services:Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services Program (Diversion Category / Disposition Category)

Sex Offender Services Program (Disposition Category)

Probation Enrichment & Transportation Program (JDAI)

Shelter Program (Human Services)

Continuum Vendor Award Program

In-Home Counseling

Youth Mentoring

Disposition

Individual Mentoring

Cognitive Skills

Connect II-IHC

Sex Offender Services

Detention Alternatives

In-Home Detention

1/3 rd Set Aside Funds

Department of Human Services

Juvenile Drug and Alcohol Treatment

Department of Human Services

Chatting With Cumberland Podcast

Wawa Summer Youth Employment

PET Program

Juvenile Crisis Beds

VII. Adjournment-

Pat Baitinger made a motion to adjourn the meeting. Gary Bryant seconded with all in favor. The meeting was adjourned at 3:48 PM.

The next meeting will be held on January 20 th , 2021, at 3:00PM via MS Teams

Frank Carozza, Cumberland County Youth Services Administrator

CY 2021 Youth Services Commission Meeting Schedule

Wednesday, September 15 th

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? The program has been utilizing virtual workshops via Zoom without any connectivity issues.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Teleconferencing Community

Service & Graduation

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1, 2020, Year To Date? 20

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? The overall number of referrals being sent to the program. The Program Supervisor has been in weekly contact with the Probation Supervisor and has requested being able to attend Formal and Informal hearings to assist the Family Court in making appropriate referrals.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Teleconferencing.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1, 2020, YTD? 16

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. What is your current level of service? Level 1 with 9 clients currently attending
  • How many juveniles completed your program this month? (2) Negative Discharge (1) Positive Discharge

Youth struggling with seeing Marijuana use as a negative life consequences.

(2) Had a positive completion within this reporting period.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming?

Yes lack of referrals to the agency

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? (43)

Ranch Hope Shelter-2020

Per our numbers, there were 3 youth placed for a total of 62 bed days. Those bed days were charged at 250.00 per day for a total November cost of $15,500.00. As of November 30 th , funding remaining in the 2020 contract is 45101.04. There were 2 youth placed in December for a total of 21 days. Currently, there are no Cumberland youth in the Ranch Hope shelter at this time. If there are no additional youth placed from Cumberland, the unused funding for the 2020 contract will be $39851.04.

Youth continue school. All virtual.

We continue to receive referrals from all of our sources and to date everyone is covid free. Outside Trips have not yet started but family visits (in person) and virtual have been offered.

Assistant Program Administrator

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? None. Our program continues to offer telehealth services to our families at this time.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Very low referrals.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? 6

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report December 2020

  • How much funding has your program spent so far this program year? $41,007.22What is your current funding balance? -$4.757.22
  1. . Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? A few clients did not want TeleHealth services.
  2. Do you have any program highlights to share? Not at this time.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Additional youth needing support.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? 31 Youth Year to date.

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report December 2020

  1. Provider / Program Name: In Home Detention
  2. Month Reporting: November 2020
  • What is your current level of service 0
  • How much funding has your program spent so far this program year? $22,225.33
  1. What is your current funding balance? $2,774.67
  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? No New Clients.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Unable to go to youth’s home maintaining contact through phone, face time, zoom.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? We have served 2 youth year to date

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report December 2020

  • How much funding has your program spent so far this program year? $41,007.22What is your current funding balance? -$4.757.22
  1. . Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? A few clients did not want TeleHealth services.
  2. Do you have any program highlights to share? Not at this time.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? Additional youth needing support.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date? 31 Youth Year to date.

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? Yes, unable to deliver program due to COVID-19

approved to start the program at the schools.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? PRAC was not able to deliver

The Program at the Cunningham (Vineland) and Thunderbolt (Millville) Academy

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  • What is your current level of service? We have serviced 16 youth in November via, incentives, life skills, activities, college tours, and transportation
  1. How many juveniles entered your program this month? 0 – the 1 referral we received was from a Juvenile that attended orientation but lives in a residential program in Camden. I tried to call and get in touch with the youth or their residential caregiver and no one has returned my phone call to be able to do the intake on the youth. This is the reason that the referral and the intake numbers do not match.
  1. Has your program experienced any barriers to implementing services? COVID-19 has forced us to zoom almost all of our activities

We completed our session 11 Life Skills Class. The topic of this class was Grocery Shopping and Money Management. 3 youth confirmed for this session and 3 youth attended the session. All 3 youth used transportation for the session. For this session the Life skills director had each youth schedule a different time slot to participate. We had to take the youth separately to ensure that they would be in compliance with COVID rules. The life skills director picked up each youth from their house and drove them to shop rite in Millville. On the way there, the youth were asked if they remembered the last time they went out to eat and how much it cost for them and their family to eat out. Each youth replied with, “At least $100 with tip” for them and their family to eat out. When we arrived at Shop Rite each youth received a grocery list with a list of items for Thanksgiving Dinner, a pen to write down the monetary amount, a calculator, a clipboard, and directions. The directions were to find all the items on the list, within an hour, and to stay within an $80.00 budget. Each student accepted the challenge and all came in under budget. At the end of the session each student got to keep all the items on the list, in turn, giving them everything they needed for a Thanksgiving meal. The students also received a $25 gift card to Shop Rite for anything else they may have needed to get. They also received a gift card for grub hub in the amount of $25 because we would normally go out to eat for that session and the youth would have a $25 limit.

  1. We also had a cookie making activity in the month of November. 4 youth signed up for this activity and 4 youth and 5 youth and 8 family members participated in the activity. For the activity we had all 5 students sign on a zoom call with SODAT staff and 6 probation officers. We all watched 2 videos on how to make peanut butter blossom cookies and chocolate chip cookies. After the zoom call, SODAT staff dropped off all supplies to each youth’s house. The youth were given all the ingredients for both cookies, oven mits, step by step directions, a cookie cooling tray, a cookie cooling rack, festive hand soap, icing to decorate the cookies with, and a container to put all their cookies in. The youth were given the challenge and if they accepted and sent pictures of them making their cookies and pictures of the final product to the SODAT cell phone, they would receive a gift card in the mail from SODAT.

INCENTIVES FOR MONTH OF November– 2 Level I, 0 Level II, 16 Level III

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? SODAT has gone completely virtual due to COVID and it makes the activities and life skills more time consuming because we have to do each student individually via zoom and we also have to drop all the supplies off to each student. Activities and life skills classes can sometimes take up to 3 or 4 days to complete.

We are still are awarding gift card incentives and either mailing them to the youth or using the SODAT vehicle to personally drop them off.

XIII. How many total youth have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year To Date?

Total – We’ve served 60 youth via trips, activities, life skills, transportation, college tours, incentives, and orientations since Jan

Youth Services Advisory Council Provider Report

  1. Provider / Program Name: Cumberland County Department of Workforce Development Center

Of the schools

  1. Do you have any program highlights to share? We have started the process for the upcoming year. The information sessions at the schools were completed on the first week of December. The numbers dropped drastically this year comparing with previous years. We have 226 students who attended. The sessions are going to be available for students until January. The students have until January to return the application, the contact person from each school is going to review all the applicants and select the students for interviews on February.

XII. How has COVID-19 affected your programming? We are being forced to make additional changes to how the program operates specially with communication and withholding students due to the closing of the schools. The number of applicants is very low this year and we hope the number increase this month.

XIII. How many total youths have you served since January 1 st , 2020, Year to Date? 126


Personality and traits

Physical appearance

Mace Windu was a human Β] male Α] who had brown eyes, dark skin, Ε] a strong build, and a height of 1.92 meters. Α] His head was completely bald although in his youth, Windu had black hair and a braid that marked his status as a Padawan. Γ]

Youth

Windu devoted his life to the Jedi Order, but struggled in his youth to temper his emotions.

Mace Windu was devoted to the Jedi Order ever since his formative years as a Padawan learner. However, in his youth he struggled to temper the frustrations he harbored over the things that offended the ideals of the Jedi, which Windu held as sacred. While his feelings were not inherently wrong according to his mentor, Jedi Master Cyslin Myr, she nonetheless believed that her apprentice needed to convert his hostility into a positive force. During their mission on Mathas, he regarded Drooz's use of religion as offensive, having noticed how the false prophet took advantage of his followers' faith. Faith was a beautiful concept to a spiritual young man like Windu, and as such he could not tolerate the heretical actions of Drooz. Γ]

Although he struggled to temper his animosity for heretics and con artists, Windu expressed empathy for other people, in particular the natives of Mathas who suffered from the effects of the Niffin plague. He saw them as innocents, but was also stunned by their refusal to see Drooz as a charlatan instead of a prophet. While in pursuit of Drooz, who mocked Windu by insulting the esteem of the Jedi Order, the young Jedi almost took Drooz's life, believing he deserved to be punished for using the Jedi's own belief system to prey on the people who expressed faith in the Force. Γ]

Jedi Master

Grand Master Yoda, the oldest and wisest member of the Jedi Order, held Windu in high esteem.

As a Jedi Master, Mace Windu was both disciplined and steadfast, as well as unwaveringly committed to the doctrine of the Jedi Order. ⏓] A senior member of the High Council, Windu sought to protect the Order from the corruption and unrest within the Galactic Republic. Although he firmly believed in the Jedi's role as servants of the Republic, the relationship between the Order and the Senate made him uncomfortable. ⏑] Noted for his grim demeanor, Windu held corrupt politicians and rebellious Jedi in low regard. He had very little patience for the failures of the Senate and was disdainful of Jedi who disobeyed the will of the High Council. Α] Holding the Jedi teachings as sacrosanct, Windu was suspicious of anyone he perceived to be a threat to the traditions of the Order. ⏓]

A staunch traditionalist, Windu was long regarded as the great champion of the Jedi Order. His commitment to the Order's ancient traditions often put him at odds with less orthodox Jedi, such as Qui-Gon Jinn and especially Anakin Skywalker. Α] In their first encounter, Windu was unimpressed with Skywalker. ⎚] He was not only skeptical of Skywalker's status as the Chosen One, but also felt that he was too old to dedicate himself to the ways of the Jedi ⏓] and the Force without the distraction of his emotional attachments. Although he never stopped doubting Skywalker, Windu came to regard him as an exceptionally skilled, yet tempestuous Jedi. Α]

Windu's ill-concealed distrust had an adverse effect on his relationship with Skywalker. Α] While he respected Skywalker's skills, he still saw the young Jedi Knight as too emotional. As such, Windu was reluctant to believe that Skywalker was the Chosen One destined to bring balance to the Force. He had grave doubts about Skywalker's appointment to the High Council at the insistence of Chancellor Palpatine, ⏓] and believed it was too dangerous to have Skywalker spy on Palpatine. ⎝]

Windu's reservations were overshadowed by the start of the Clone Wars. ⏓] In the early days of the conflict, Windu wrestled with feelings of uncertainty concerning the Jedi's new role as warriors, as well as remorse for the Jedi who died during the Battle of Geonosis. In his moments of doubt, he turned to Yoda seeking wisdom and guidance. The ancient Grand Master advised his fellow Councilor to keep faith in the will of the Force nor question his role in the Order, for in Yoda's eyes, Windu was a wise and capable leader. During a mission on Hissrich, Windu's faith was further tested by his interactions with the Jedi Prosset Dibs, who harbored his own reservations about the Order's part in the conflict. Ζ]

As a member of the High Council, Windu was determined to protect the traditions and independence of the Jedi Order.

Whereas Dibs grew increasingly doubtful, believing the Jedi did not belong on the battlefield, Windu became more certain that—as Jedi Knights—they had a duty to protect the innocent and restore peace to the galaxy. Dibs ultimately accused the Jedi Order of turning away from their traditions, causing Windu to hold fast to his conviction that it was not wrong to fight for the ideals he believed in. The Jedi, Windu felt, never wanted to fight in a war, Γ] but circumstances compelled them to become a sword instead of a shield for the Republic. Ζ]

Windu held Skywalker's apprentice, Padawan Ahsoka Tano, as another rebellious Jedi. Α] When Tano was framed for treason, Windu supported the High Council's decision to revoke her status as a Jedi and turn her over to the Republic for a military tribunal. ⎽] While their verdict pained him, ⎾] Windu concurred with Tarkin's position on the matter—an internal Jedi trial would appear biased, and to protect Tano would be to defy the wishes of the Senate. He therefore felt that submitting Tano for trial was the only feasible option available to the Council. After her innocence was proven, however, Windu joined his colleagues in offering to welcome Tano back into the Order, and proclaimed her a greater Jedi because of her ordeal, which he observed as the great trial in her path to Jedi Knighthood. Tano refused to come back, a decision which surprised Windu and the Council. ⎽]

Notwithstanding his commitment to the ancient traditions of the Order, the Clone Wars forced Windu to rethink some of his beliefs and preconceptions. Α] He held fast to the Order's rigid code throughout the Clone Wars, but also began to consider its potential shortcomings. ⏓] Prior to the Battle of Geonosis, Windu did not believe it was in the nature of a Jedi—even a former one such as Count Dooku—to assassinate anyone. The onset of the Clone Wars caused Windu to realize that his old friend was more than a "political idealist" Dooku had joined the dark side as an enemy of the Order and the Republic he had once served. Δ] As the death toll escalated after nearly three years of continuous warfare, Windu proposed to have Dooku assassinated in the hope of preventing further civilian casualties. Although his colleague, Obi-Wan Kenobi, asserted that assassination was against the Jedi Code, Windu pointed out that it was also against the Jedi way to allow innocent people to suffer needlessly. ⏅]

Diplomat and general

Windu mediated negotiations between Orn Free Taa and Cham Syndulla by appealing to their mutual goal of freeing Ryloth.

As the war progressed, Windu was compelled to engage in politics. Although he disliked the system, he nonetheless proved to be an able diplomat during the Ryloth campaign in which he successfully mediated a truce between two rivals, Senator Orn Free Taa and Cham Syndulla. Α] His efforts to find a diplomatic solution were less successful on Anaxes, however. Upon confronting a regiment of battle droids, he offered to have them reprogrammed in return for their unconditional surrender, citing his capacity for destroying Separatist droids as a reason to avoid fighting him. Their response was to attack, forcing Windu and Kenobi to defend themselves. ⏈]

In spite of how the conflict forced the Jedi into the role of generals and warriors, Windu held fast to the Jedi Code for the most part. He refused to support the Dugs of Malastare when they proposed to kill the Zillo Beast, which he correctly presumed to be the last of its species. Α] He also chose to not seek retribution against Boba Fett after the latter attempted to assassinate him. ⎳] Despite his disapproval of maverick Jedi and the avarice of the Senate, Windu was very loyal to both the Republic and the Jedi Order to the point where he bravely risked his life for both institutions throughout the Clone Wars. Α] Even as the Jedi became officers in the Grand Army of the Republic, Δ] Windu remained extremely protective of the Order's independence and jealously guarded its interests against external interference. ⎝]

Jedi Champion

Mace Windu was known as the great champion of the Jedi Order.

Though noted for his grim demeanor, Α] Windu was highly compassionate towards his fellow Jedi, the citizens of the Republic, ⏅] and the clone troopers under his command. ⎱] His own survival on Geonosis was of little comfort to him the galaxy had fallen into a state of war, and the Jedi—once the peacekeepers of the Republic—were forced to adopt the mantle of warriors and military leaders. Α]

Windu worked closely with Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine, often acting as an adviser to the leader of the Senate throughout the Clone Wars. ⎣] As time went on, the Jedi champion grew increasingly suspicious of Palpatine's intentions. During the Zillo Beast's transportation to Coruscant, Windu strongly disagreed with the chancellor's decision to bring the dangerous creature to the Republic capital. Α] Though wary of Palpatine, Windu remained committed to his duty as a Jedi, which required him to ensure the safety of the chancellor. Yet even this responsibility resulted in a disagreement between himself and the chancellor Palpatine claimed that the level of security around him was unnecessary during his visit to Naboo, but Windu insisted on taking every precaution to protect the chancellor. ⎸]

Windu confronted Sidious in the hope of preventing the Jedi Order's destruction.

In the waning days of the Clone Wars, Windu's trust and respect for Palpatine had all but evaporated. Following Dooku's death, he was uncertain whether Palpatine would relinquish his wartime authority as he once promised. At the same time, Windu came to sense the dark side of the Force surrounding the chancellor. By now he was certain that a plot was in motion to destroy the Jedi Order. When Skywalker confirmed that Palpatine's true identity was Darth Sidious, Windu was determined to take swift and decisive action against the Sith Lord, realizing that the fate of the Jedi Order hung in the balance. Although he initially attempted to arrest Sidious, Windu concluded that it was impossible to seek justice due to the chancellor's hold over the system. He therefore decided to end Sidious' life before the latter could succeed in his plan to fully take over the Republic, despite Skywalker's insistence that killing the Sith Lord—disarmed and seemingly beaten—was against the Jedi Code. However, in concentrating all of his attention on preventing the galaxy from falling under Sith oppression, Windu failed to anticipate Skywalker's intervention, resulting in the demise of the Jedi Order's great champion. Α]


Power and the Vote

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  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Online publication date: November 2015
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online ISBN: 9781316272121
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316272121
  • Subjects: Political Economy, Politics and International Relations, Comparative Politics

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Book description

How do developing states decide who gets access to public goods like electricity, water, and education? Power and the Vote breaks new ground by showing that the provision of seemingly universal public goods is intricately shaped by electoral priorities. In doing so, this book introduces new methods using high-resolution satellite imagery to study the distribution of electricity across and within the developing world. Combining cross-national evidence with detailed sub-national analysis and village-level data from India, Power and the Vote affirms the power of electoral incentives in shaping the distribution of public goods and challenges the view that democracy is a luxury of the rich with little relevance to the world's poor.

Reviews

‘Hundreds of millions lack reliable access to electricity, the foundation of modern life. Brian Min uses his mastery of the nuts and bolts of the sector to show that it is politicians who flip the switch. This fine book should be widely read. It provides compelling answers to central issues of the political economy of development - not least, ‘do elections matter?' - with meticulous technique and illuminating detail.'

Philip Keefer - Principal Economic Advisor, Inter-American Development Bank

‘The challenge of reliably measuring public and private goods provision has long stymied scholarship on distributive politics. Brian Min provides a substantial breakthrough with his innovative use of global satellite imagery to gauge the usage of electricity throughout the developing world. These remarkable data allow assessment of the uneven spread of electrical power throughout space and time, the tendency of democracies to serve poor rural populations, and the relationship between electoral and allocative politics. Scholars seeking to identify the effects of political institutions on distributive outcomes will benefit tremendously from Min's approach.'

Thad Dunning - Robson Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley

‘Access to energy is crucial for economic development and poverty alleviation. Power and the Vote provides a groundbreaking and extremely meticulous investigation of the way electoral incentives, not efficiency consideration, shape the distribution of electricity around the world, particularly in India. The book makes a major contribution to the growing literature on electoral clientelism and the political economy infrastructure provision in developing countries.'

Leonard Wantchekon - Princeton University, New Jersey

'Using satellite imagery and a combination of national and local data from across India, Min analyses the distribution of electricity and other public goods across that country, which he argues has been distorted by political and electoral motivations.'


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